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HIV causes rapid CD4+ T cell depletion in the gut mucosa, resulting in immune deficiency and defects in the intestinal epithelial barrier. Breakdown in gut barrier integrity is linked to chronic inflammation and disease progression. However, the early effects of HIV on the gut epithelium, prior to the CD4+ T cell depletion, are not known. Further, the(More)
BACKGROUND Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid(More)
BACKGROUND HIV reservoirs are rapidly established after infection, and the effect of HAART initiated very early during acute infection on HIV reservoirs remains poorly documented, particularly in tissue known to actively replicate the virus. In this context, we used the model of experimental infection of macaques with pathogenic SIV to assess in different(More)
BACKGROUND The time of infection is rarely known in human cases; thus, the effects of delaying the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the peripheral viral load and the establishment of viral reservoirs are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Six groups of macaques, infected intravenously with SIV(mac251), were given placebo or(More)
BACKGROUND The male genital tract is suspected to constitute a viral sanctuary as persistent HIV shedding is found in the semen of a subset of HIV-infected men receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The origin of this persistent shedding is currently unknown. Phylogenetic studies indicated that HIV in semen from untreated men arises from local(More)
In developed countries, most of hepatitis E human cases are of zoonotic origin. Swine is a major hepatitis E virus (HEV) reservoir and foodborne transmissions after pork product consumption have been described. The risk for HEV-containing pig livers at slaughter time is related to the age at infection and to the virus shedding duration. Porcine Reproductive(More)
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