Olivia Oxlade

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The production of guidelines for the management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) fits the mandate of the World Health Organization (WHO) to support countries in the reinforcement of patient care. WHO commissioned external reviews to summarise evidence on priority questions regarding case-finding, treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB),(More)
BACKGROUND Although poverty is widely recognized as an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) disease, the specific proximal risk factors that mediate this association are less clear. The objective of our study was to investigate the mechanisms by which poverty increases the risk of TB. METHODS Using individual level data from 198,754 people from the(More)
BACKGROUND Implementation of the World Health Organization's DOTS strategy (Directly Observed Treatment Short-course therapy) can result in significant reduction in tuberculosis incidence. We estimated potential costs and benefits of DOTS expansion in Haiti from the government, and societal perspectives. METHODS Using decision analysis incorporating(More)
BACKGROUND Costs of tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment may represent a significant burden for the poor and for the health system in resource-poor countries. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to analyze patients' costs of tuberculosis care and to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the directly observed treatment (DOT) strategy(More)
SETTING Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, India. OBJECTIVE To measure patient costs associated with diagnosis and the complete treatment of tuberculosis (TB). DESIGN Prospective structured interview of 100 new smear-positive adult patients being treated for TB in Tamil Nadu, India, selected evenly from 10 representative health facilities in the state.(More)
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a serious emerging problem in many low-resource countries. TB control programmes are uncertain of which drug susceptibility tests (DSTs) to use and when to test patients. We predicted the potential cost-effectiveness of different DST strategies, in settings with varying prevalence of drug resistance. Using decision(More)
INTRODUCTION Cost effectiveness analyses (CEA) can provide useful information on how to invest limited funds, however they are less useful if different analysis of the same intervention provide unclear or contradictory results. The objective of our study was to conduct a systematic review of methodologic aspects of CEA that evaluate Interferon Gamma Release(More)
BACKGROUND Immigrants have increased mortality from hepatocellular carcinoma as compared to the host populations, primarily due to undetected chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Despite this, there are no systematic programs in most immigrant-receiving countries to screen for chronic HBV infection and immigrants are not routinely offered HBV(More)
BACKGROUND The development of a successful new tuberculosis (TB) vaccine would circumvent many limitations of current diagnostic and treatment practices. However, vaccine development is complex and costly. We aimed to assess the potential cost effectiveness of novel vaccines for TB control in a sub-Saharan African country--Zambia--relative to the existing(More)