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The precise neuropathological mechanism underlying Tourette syndrome (TS) is unknown. In order to evaluate a variety of proposed dopaminergic abnormalities, postmortem tissue samples were obtained from three individuals with TS (two typical males with childhood onset, ages 29 and 77, and a 62-year-old female with adult-onset) and three age- and sex-matched(More)
Rodent striatal microinfusions have been suggested as a model for assessing the behavioral effects induced by antineuronal antibodies. We used this approach to evaluate the proposed autoimmune etiology for Tourette syndrome (TS) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS). Sera were assessed from(More)
An autoimmune-mediated mechanism involving molecular mimicry has been proposed for a variety of pediatric movement disorders that occur after a streptococcal infection. In this study, anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) were measured in 15 children with the diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection(More)
Gene expression patterns in the postmortem putamen of patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) were investigated using cDNA microarrays. A cDNA neuroarray comprising 1537 genes known to be related to neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders was used to compare patient samples (n=3) with those from control subjects (n=4). Z test and Z ratio were used to(More)
OBJECTIVES Randall initially described calcified subepithelial papillary plaques, which he hypothesized as nidi for urinary calculi. The discovery of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP), also referred to as nanobacteria, in calcified soft tissues has raised another hypothesis about their possible involvement in urinary stone formation. This research is the first(More)
Anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) were measured in nine children with Sydenham chorea (SC) and compared to nine controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB) methods were used to detect ABGA against supernatant (S1), pellet, and synaptosomal preparations from adult and pediatric postmortem caudate, putamen, and globus(More)