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Using the photopigment melanopsin, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) respond directly to light to drive circadian clock resetting and pupillary constriction. We now report that ipRGCs are more abundant and diverse than previously appreciated, project more widely within the brain, and can support spatial visual perception. A… (More)
A key principle of retinal organization is that distinct ON and OFF channels are relayed by separate populations of bipolar cells to different sublaminae of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). ON bipolar cell axons have been thought to synapse exclusively in the inner IPL (the ON sublamina) onto dendrites of ON-type amacrine and ganglion cells. However, M1… (More)
The Eynard-Orantin recursion formula provides an effective tool for certain enumeration problems in geometry. The formula requires a spectral curve and the recursion kernel. We present a uniform construction of the spectral curve and the recursion kernel from the unstable geometries of the original counting problem. We examine this construction using four… (More)
to the family of spectral curves of Hitchin fibrations. A spectral curve in the topological recursion, which is defined to be a complex plane curve, is replaced with a generic curve in the cotangent bundle T * C of an arbitrary smooth base curve C. We then prove that these spectral curves are quantizable, using the new formalism. More precisely, we… (More)
A geometric quantization using the topological recursion is established for the com-pactified cotangent bundle of a smooth projective curve of an arbitrary genus. In this quantization, the Hitchin spectral curve of a rank 2 meromorphic Higgs bundle on the base curve corresponds to a quantum curve, which is a Rees D-module on the base. The topological… (More)
The mammalian retina contains approximately 30 different morphological types of amacrine cells, receiving glutamatergic input from bipolar cells. In this study, we combined electrophysiological and pharmacological techniques in order to study the glutamate receptors expressed by different types of amacrine cells. Whole-cell currents were recorded from… (More)
In this paper we give a new proof of the fact that for all pairs of positive integers (d, m) with d/m < 117/37, the linear system of plane curves of degree d with ten general base points of multiplicity m is empty.