Oliver West

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BACKGROUND Up-to-date data tracking of national smoking patterns and cessation-related behaviour is required to evaluate and inform tobacco control strategies. The Smoking Toolkit Study (STS) was designed for this role. This paper describes the methodology of the STS and examines as far as possible the representativeness of the samples. METHODS The STS(More)
RATIONALE Individual differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism (RNM) could be related to dependence and success in stopping smoking. A range of studies have examined RNM measured by the ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine in body fluids (the ratio). A systematic review of this literature is needed to draw conclusions and identify gaps in(More)
Several clinical trials of both behavioural and pharmacological treatments across Europe and the US have reported lower smoking cessation rates in women than in men, while population data and data from smokers attending routine stop-smoking services show little or no gender differences in outcome. Data from countries with a large gender difference in(More)
Craving for caffeine has received little empirical attention, despite considerable research into the potential for caffeine dependence. The main aim of this study was to develop, and initially validate, a multi-item, multidimensional instrument to measure cravings for caffeine. Participants were 189 caffeine consumers who completed the Questionnaire of(More)
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