Oliver W. Layton

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Humans accurately judge their direction of heading when translating in a rigid environment, unless independently moving objects (IMOs) cross the observer's focus of expansion (FoE). Studies show that an IMO on a laterally moving path that maintains a fixed distance with respect to the observer (non-approaching; C. S. Royden & E. C. Hildreth, 1996) biases(More)
Many forms of locomotion rely on the ability to accurately perceive one's direction of locomotion (i.e., heading) based on optic flow. Although accurate in rigid environments, heading judgments may be biased when independently moving objects are present. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the conditions in which moving objects influence(More)
Self-motion, steering, and obstacle avoidance during navigation in the real world require humans to travel along curved paths. Many perceptual models have been proposed that focus on heading, which specifies the direction of travel along straight paths, but not on path curvature, which humans accurately perceive and is critical to everyday locomotion. In(More)
The focus of expansion (FoE) specifies the heading direction of an observer during self-motion, and experiments show that humans can accurately perceive their heading from optic flow. However, when the environment contains an independently moving object, heading judgments may be biased. When objects approach the observer in depth, the heading bias may be(More)
Is it possible for humans to navigate in the natural environment wherein the path taken between various destinations is ‘optimal’ in some way? In the domain of optimization this challenge is traditionally framed as the “Traveling Salesman Problem” (TSP). What strategies and ecological considerations are plausible for human navigation? When given a(More)
Navigation in a static environment along straight paths without eye movements produces radial optic flow fields. A singularity called the focus of expansion (FoE) specifies the direction of travel (heading) of the observer. Cells in primate dorsal medial superior temporal area (MSTd) respond to radial fields and are therefore thought to be(More)
Determining whether a region belongs to the interior or exterior of a shape (figure-ground segregation) is a core competency of the primate brain, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Many models assume that figure-ground segregation occurs by assembling progressively more complex representations through feedforward connections, with(More)
The spatio-temporal displacement of luminance patterns in a 2D image is called optic flow. Present biologically-inspired approaches to navigation that use optic flow largely focus on the problem of extracting the instantaneous direction of travel (heading) of a mobile agent. Computational models have demonstrated success in estimating heading in highly(More)
[PDF] [Full Text] [Abstract] , December 2, 2010; 10 (14): . J Vis Eugenie Roudaia, Patrick J. Bennett, Allison B. Sekuler and Karin S. Pilz Spatiotemporal properties of apparent motion perception and aging [PDF] [Full Text] [Abstract] , March , 2011; 105 (3): 1199-1211. J Neurophysiol Pinar Boyraz and Stefan Treue area MT Misperceptions of speed are(More)
Camouflaged animals that have very similar textures to their surroundings are difficult to detect when stationary. However, when an animal moves, humans readily see a figure at a different depth than the background. How do humans perceive a figure breaking camouflage, even though the texture of the figure and its background may be statistically identical in(More)