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Sexual intercourse is the major route of HIV transmission. To identify endogenous factors that affect the efficiency of sexual viral transmission, we screened a complex peptide/protein library derived from human semen. We show that naturally occurring fragments of the abundant semen marker prostatic acidic phosphatase (PAP) form amyloid fibrils. These(More)
BACKGROUND Viruses frequently render cells refractory to subsequent infection with the same virus. This state of superinfection immunity counteracts potentially detrimental consequences for the infected cell and facilitates high-level replication and viral spread in the host. RESULTS Here, we show that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) employs its early(More)
OBJECTIVE Human immunodeficiency virus-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common and disabling disorder, often associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. We investigated the clinical features and associated pathogenic determinants of HIV-SN in a neurological cohort of HIV-infected patients, together with a novel model of HIV-SN. METHODS(More)
Mammals encode proteins that inhibit viral replication at the cellular level. In turn, certain viruses have evolved genes that can functionally counteract these intrinsic restrictions. Human CD317 (BST-2/HM1.24/tetherin) is a restriction factor that blocks release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from the cell surface and can be overcome by(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a lymphotropic herpesvirus causing clinically self-limiting but lifelong persisting infections. Although several severe diseases (e.g., Hodgkin′s disease) are associated with EBV, its role in lower respiratory tract infections is still elusive. The prevalence of EBV, herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in(More)
The destruction of the immune system by progressive loss of CD4 T cells is the hallmark of AIDS. CCR5-dependent (R5) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates predominate in the early, asymptomatic stages of HIV-1 infection, while CXCR4-dependent (X4) isolates typically emerge at later stages, frequently coinciding with a rapid decline in CD4 T(More)
Lentiviral Nef proteins are key factors for pathogenesis and are known to downregulate functionally important molecules, including CD4 and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), from the surfaces of infected cells. Recently, we demonstrated that Nef reduces cell surface levels of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry coreceptor(More)
UNLABELLED The intrinsic immunity factor CD317 (BST-2/HM1.24/tetherin) imposes a barrier to HIV-1 release at the cell surface that can be overcome by the viral protein Vpu. Expression of Vpu results in a reduction of CD317 surface levels; however, the mechanism of this Vpu activity and its contribution to the virological antagonism are incompletely(More)
Chemokine receptors (CKRs) are important physiological mediators of immune defense, inflammatory responses, and angiogenesis, and they have also been implicated in a number of viral disease processes. Here, we report that the Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reduces cell surface levels of eight different members of the CC- and CXC-family of(More)
UNLABELLED HIV-1 Nef and Vpu are thought to optimize virus replication in the infected host, at least in part via their ability to interfere with vesicular host cell trafficking. Despite the use of distinct molecular mechanisms, Nef and Vpu share specificity for some molecules such as CD4 and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), while(More)