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Sexual intercourse is the major route of HIV transmission. To identify endogenous factors that affect the efficiency of sexual viral transmission, we screened a complex peptide/protein library derived from human semen. We show that naturally occurring fragments of the abundant semen marker prostatic acidic phosphatase (PAP) form amyloid fibrils. These(More)
BACKGROUND Viruses frequently render cells refractory to subsequent infection with the same virus. This state of superinfection immunity counteracts potentially detrimental consequences for the infected cell and facilitates high-level replication and viral spread in the host. RESULTS Here, we show that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) employs its early(More)
UNLABELLED Vitamin D is an important immune modulator that plays an emerging role in inflammatory and metabolic liver diseases, including infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). In contrast, the relationship between vitamin D metabolism and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is less well characterized. Therefore, we quantified 25(OH)D3 serum levels in a cohort of(More)
Sialic acid, as a terminal saccharide residue on cell surface glycoconjugates, plays an important role in a variety of biological processes. In this study, we investigated subclones of the human B lymphoma cell line BJA-B for differences in the glycosylation of cell surface glycoconjugates, and studied the functional implications of such differences. With(More)
OBJECTIVE Human immunodeficiency virus-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common and disabling disorder, often associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. We investigated the clinical features and associated pathogenic determinants of HIV-SN in a neurological cohort of HIV-infected patients, together with a novel model of HIV-SN. METHODS(More)
N-Acetylneuraminic acid is the most prominent sialic acid in eukaryotes. The structural diversity of sialic acid is exploited by viruses, bacteria, and toxins and by the sialoglycoproteins and sialoglycolipids involved in cell-cell recognition in their highly specific recognition and binding to cellular receptors. The physiological precursor of all sialic(More)
Sialic acids are essential components of the cell surface receptors of many microorganisms including viruses. A synthetic, N-substituted D-mannosamine derivative has been shown to act as precursor for structurally altered sialic acid incorporated into glycoconjugates in vivo (Kayser, H., Zeitler, R., Kannicht, C., Grunow, D., Nuck, R., and Reutter, W.(More)
Unlike activated CD4(+) T cells, resting CD4(+) T cells are highly resistant to productive HIV-1 infection. Early after HIV-1 entry, a major block limits reverse transcription of incoming viral genomes. Here we show that the deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase SAMHD1 prevents reverse transcription of HIV-1 RNA in resting CD4(+) T cells. SAMHD1(More)
The B-lymphotropic papovavirus (LPV) productively infects only a subset of human B-lymphoma-derived cell lines while transfection of the viral genome yields infectious viral particles in a much wider variety of human hematopoietic cell lines. We have analyzed the contribution of a putative LPV receptor on the cell surface of B-cell lines in restricting the(More)
Mammals encode proteins that inhibit viral replication at the cellular level. In turn, certain viruses have evolved genes that can functionally counteract these intrinsic restrictions. Human CD317 (BST-2/HM1.24/tetherin) is a restriction factor that blocks release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from the cell surface and can be overcome by(More)