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The family Rhizobiaceae contains plant-associated bacteria with critical roles in ecology and agriculture. Within this family, many Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium strains are nitrogen-fixing plant mutualists, while many strains designated as Agrobacterium are plant pathogens. These contrasting lifestyles are primarily dependent on the transmissible plasmids(More)
BACKGROUND Food-induced anaphylaxis is triggered by specific IgE antibodies. Paradoxically, some subjects with significant IgE levels can ingest allergenic foods without incident. Similarly, subjects completing oral immunotherapy (OIT) tolerate food challenges despite persistent high-titer food-specific IgE. OBJECTIVE We sought to test whether IgG(More)
Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens (SEA) profoundly regulate the infected host's immune system. We previously showed that SEA prevents type 1 diabetes in NOD mice and that splenocytes from SEA-treated mice have reduced ability to transfer diabetes to NOD.scid recipients. To further characterize the mechanism of diabetes prevention we examined the cell(More)
Patients with ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (ED-ID) caused by mutations in the inhibitor of NF-κB α (IκBα) are susceptible to severe recurrent infections, despite normal T and B cell numbers and intact in vitro lymphocyte function. Moreover, the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in these patients is poor despite good(More)
Immunization with Schistosoma mansoni soluble antigen preparations protects non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice against the development of type 1 diabetes. These preparations have long been known to induce Th2 responses in vitro and in vivo. Recently, two separate groups have reported that ω-1, a well-characterized glycoprotein in S. mansoni soluble egg antigens(More)
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies are known for triggering immediate hypersensitivity reactions such as food anaphylaxis. In this study, we tested whether they might additionally function to amplify nascent antibody and T helper 2 (Th2) cell-mediated responses to ingested proteins and whether blocking IgE would modify sensitization. By using mice harboring(More)
The immunomodulatory effect of Schistosoma mansoni antigens has often been attributed to interaction with PRR expressed on APC. Our previous work has shown that S. mansoni-soluble egg antigen (SEA) can induce, together with a Th2 response, TGF-β-dependent Foxp3 expression in naïve CD4(+) T cells from NOD mice. We found that SEA can directly upregulate the(More)
Individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD) are susceptible to a severe, potentially fatal, systemic infection and inflammatory response following exposure to Vaccinia virus (VV). IL-10 acts both as an inducer of Th2 responses and as a regulator of T cell activation. It has been shown to limit skin inflammation elicited by contact sensitizers. AD exacerbations(More)
As more facts emerge regarding the ways in which parasite-derived molecules modulate the host immune response, it is possible to envisage how a lack of infection by agents that once infected humans commonly might contribute to the rise in autoimmune disease. Through effects on cells of both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response, parasites can(More)
We have shown that Schistosoma mansoni egg soluble antigen (SEA) prevents diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse inducing functional changes in antigen presenting cells (APCs) and expanding T helper (Th) 2 and regulatory T cell (Treg) responses. A Th2 response to S. mansoni infection or its antigens is key to both the establishment of tolerance and(More)