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The family Rhizobiaceae contains plant-associated bacteria with critical roles in ecology and agriculture. Within this family, many Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium strains are nitrogen-fixing plant mutualists, while many strains designated as Agrobacterium are plant pathogens. These contrasting lifestyles are primarily dependent on the transmissible plasmids(More)
Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens (SEA) profoundly regulate the infected host's immune system. We previously showed that SEA prevents type 1 diabetes in NOD mice and that splenocytes from SEA-treated mice have reduced ability to transfer diabetes to NOD.scid recipients. To further characterize the mechanism of diabetes prevention we examined the cell(More)
Immunization with Schistosoma mansoni soluble antigen preparations protects non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice against the development of type 1 diabetes. These preparations have long been known to induce Th2 responses in vitro and in vivo. Recently, two separate groups have reported that ω-1, a well-characterized glycoprotein in S. mansoni soluble egg antigens(More)
Patients with ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (ED-ID) caused by mutations in the inhibitor of NF-κB α (IκBα) are susceptible to severe recurrent infections, despite normal T and B cell numbers and intact in vitro lymphocyte function. Moreover, the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in these patients is poor despite good(More)
BACKGROUND Food-induced anaphylaxis is triggered by specific IgE antibodies. Paradoxically, some subjects with significant IgE levels can ingest allergenic foods without incident. Similarly, subjects completing oral immunotherapy (OIT) tolerate food challenges despite persistent high-titer food-specific IgE. OBJECTIVE We sought to test whether IgG(More)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens translocates T-DNA through a polar VirB/D4 type IV secretion (T4S) system. VirC1, a factor required for efficient T-DNA transfer, bears a deviant Walker A and other sequence motifs characteristic of ParA and MinD ATPases. Here, we show that VirC1 promotes conjugative T-DNA transfer by stimulating generation of multiple copies per(More)
BACKGROUND Commensal microbiota play a critical role in maintaining oral tolerance. The effect of food allergy on the gut microbial ecology remains unknown. OBJECTIVE We sought to establish the composition of the gut microbiota in experimental food allergy and its role in disease pathogenesis. METHODS Food allergy-prone mice with a gain-of-function(More)
BACKGROUND Sensitization to food antigen can occur through cutaneous exposure. OBJECTIVE We sought to test the hypothesis that epicutaneous sensitization with food antigen predisposes to IgE-mediated anaphylaxis on oral allergen challenge. METHODS BALB/c mice were epicutaneously sensitized by repeated application of ovalbumin (OVA) to tape-stripped skin(More)
Individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD) are susceptible to a severe, potentially fatal, systemic infection and inflammatory response following exposure to Vaccinia virus (VV). IL-10 acts both as an inducer of Th2 responses and as a regulator of T cell activation. It has been shown to limit skin inflammation elicited by contact sensitizers. AD exacerbations(More)
As more facts emerge regarding the ways in which parasite-derived molecules modulate the host immune response, it is possible to envisage how a lack of infection by agents that once infected humans commonly might contribute to the rise in autoimmune disease. Through effects on cells of both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response, parasites can(More)