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Mitochondria are found in all eukaryotic cells and derive from a bacterial endosymbiont [1, 2]. The evolution of a protein import system was a prerequisite for the conversion of the endosymbiont into a true organelle. Tom40, the essential component of the protein translocase of the outer membrane, is conserved in mitochondria of almost all eukaryotes but(More)
Mitochondria import a large number of nuclear-encoded proteins via membrane-bound transport machineries; however, little is known about regulation of the preprotein translocases. We report that the main protein entry gate of mitochondria, the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex), is phosphorylated by cytosolic kinases-in particular, casein kinase(More)
Two DNA fragments, each containing tRNA(Arg)3 and a tRNA(Asp) gene in close conjunction, have been isolated from different genomic regions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleotide Nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene regions revealed that in both fragments the tRNA(Arg)3 coding region is located 5'-proximal to the tRNA(Asp) coding region. They are(More)
Insects have an efficient defense system against infections. Their antibacterial immune proteins have been well characterized. However, the molecular mechanisms by which insects recognize foreignness are not yet known. Data are presented showing that hemolin (previously named P4), a bacteria-inducible hemolymph protein of the giant silk moth Hyalophora(More)
The preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) functions as the main entry gate for the import of nuclear-encoded proteins into mitochondria. The major subunits of the TOM complex are the three receptors Tom20, Tom22, and Tom70 and the central channel-forming protein Tom40. Cytosolic kinases have been shown to regulate the biogenesis(More)
The mitochondrial outer membrane protein Tom40 is the general entry gate for imported proteins in essentially all eukaryotes. Trypanosomatids lack Tom40, however, and use instead a protein termed the archaic translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (ATOM). Here we report the discovery of pATOM36, a novel essential component of the trypanosomal outer(More)
The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces an extracellular polysaccharide called alginate. This is especially relevant in pulmonary infection of cystic fibrosis patients where it protects the bacteria from the hosts’ immune system and the diffusion of antibiotics. Here a connection between the stability of a proposed alginate(More)
Mitochondria play central roles in cellular energy conversion, metabolism, and apoptosis. Mitochondria import more than 1000 different proteins from the cytosol. It is unknown if the mitochondrial protein import machinery is connected to the cell division cycle. We found that the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 stimulated assembly of the main mitochondrial(More)
A gene for Saccharomyces cerevisiae tRNATrp has been sequenced which contains an intervening sequence of 34 bp (H. S. Kang and J. Abelson, unpublished results). The mutant yeast strain ts-136 accumulates a precursor to tRNATrp which contains mature ends and is colinear with the tRNATrp gene. A nuclear extract from Xenopus oocytes is capable of supporting(More)