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Although common sense suggests that environmental influences increasingly account for individual differences in behavior as experiences accumulate during the course of life, this hypothesis has not previously been tested, in part because of the large sample sizes needed for an adequately powered analysis. Here we show for general cognitive ability that, to(More)
General cognitive ability (g), which refers to what cognitive abilities have in common, is an important target for molecular genetic research because multivariate quantitative genetic analyses have shown that the same set of genes affects diverse cognitive abilities as well as learning disabilities. In this first autosomal genome-wide association scan of g,(More)
After drifting apart for 100 years, the two worlds of genetics - quantitative genetics and molecular genetics - are finally coming together in genome-wide association (GWA) research, which shows that the heritability of complex traits and common disorders is due to multiple genes of small effect size. We highlight a polygenic framework, supported by recent(More)
Numeracy is as important as literacy and exhibits a similar frequency of disability. Although its etiology is relatively poorly understood, quantitative genetic research has demonstrated mathematical ability to be moderately heritable. In this first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of mathematical ability and disability, 10 out of 43 single nucleotide(More)
BACKGROUND The environment can moderate the effect of genes - a phenomenon called gene-environment (GxE) interaction. Several studies have found that socioeconomic status (SES) modifies the heritability of children's intelligence. Among low-SES families, genetic factors have been reported to explain less of the variance in intelligence; the reverse is found(More)
The ability to perform mathematical tasks is required in everyday life. Although heritability estimates suggest a genetic contribution, no previous study has conclusively identified a genetic risk variant for mathematical performance. Research has shown that the prevalence of mathematical disabilities is increased in children with dyslexia. We therefore(More)
The generalist genes hypothesis implies that general cognitive ability (g) is an essential target for understanding how genetic polymorphisms influence the development of the human brain. Using 8,791 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study, we examine genetic stability and change in the etiology of g assessed by diverse measures during the(More)
PURPOSE Researchers have previously shown that individual differences in measures of receptive language ability at age 12 are highly heritable. In the current study, the authors attempted to identify some of the genes responsible for the heritability of receptive language ability using a genome-wide association approach. METHOD The authors administered 4(More)
BACKGROUND Twin studies have shown that anxiety in a general population sample of children involves both domain-general and trait-specific genetic effects. For this reason, in an attempt to identify genes responsible for these effects, we investigated domain-general and trait-specific genetic associations in the first genome-wide association (GWA) study on(More)
For nearly a century, twin and adoption studies have yielded substantial estimates of heritability for cognitive abilities, although it has proved difficult for genomewide-association studies to identify the genetic variants that account for this heritability (i.e., the missing-heritability problem). However, a new approach, genomewide complex-trait(More)