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Effects of severe lactacidosis were analyzed in vitro by employment of C6 glioma cells and astrocytes from primary culture. The cells were suspended in a physiological medium, which was rendered acidotic by addition of lactic acid in rising concentrations. A pH range of 7.4-4.2 was studied under maintenance of isotonicity and a normal electrolyte(More)
OBJECTIVE Update of the Hohenheim consensus on monosodium glutamate from 1997: Summary and evaluation of recent knowledge with respect to physiology and safety of monosodium glutamate. DESIGN Experts from a range of relevant disciplines received and considered a series of questions related to aspects of the topic. SETTING University of Hohenheim,(More)
The symptoms following sinus and vein occlusion observed in patients and experimental animals display a considerable variability that so far remains largely unexplained. In a rat cortical vein occlusion model using a photochemical thrombotic technique, we examined changes in the cerebral venous flow pattern by fluorescence angiography and regional cerebral(More)
The excitatory transmitters glutamate and aspartate become toxic whenever their extracellular levels are increased because of neuronal, glial and endothelial impairment. Taurine, a volume-regulating amino acid, is released upon excitotoxin-induced cell swelling. Our aim was to investigate if glutamate and aspartate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reveal(More)
Intracellular and extracellular acidosis may determine the ultimate outcome for brain tissue in cerebral ischemia. An extracellular acidosis that occurs in the penumbra zone was investigated in vitro as to its role in the formation of cytotoxic cell swelling. For that purpose, C6 glioma cells or primary cultured astrocytes were suspended in normal isotonic(More)
Hypobaric hypotension was used to reduce systemic blood pressure in rats below the lower threshold of CBF autoregulation to evaluate a new laser Doppler (LD) "scanning" technique. Spontaneously breathing male Wistar Kyoto rats (n = 8) were anesthetized with chloral hydrate and the head fixed in a stereotaxic head holder. A cranial window with intact dura(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE A previous communication of this laboratory demonstrated reduced mortality and neuronal damage by spontaneous locomotor activity preceding forebrain ischemia in Mongolian gerbils. The present experiments seek to elucidate potential mechanisms of protection by measurement of cerebral blood flow, cerebral tissue conductance as an(More)
BACKGROUND Myocardial injury from ischemia can be aggravated by reperfusion of the jeopardized area. The precise underlying mechanisms have not been clearly defined, but proinflammatory events, including complement activation, leukocyte adhesion, and infiltration and release of diverse mediators, probably play important roles. The present study addresses(More)
The pathophysiological potential of mediator substances in manifestations of secondary brain damage is attracting increased attention. This is particularly true of the excitatory transmitters glutamate and arachidonic acid. Noxious properties of these compounds in central nervous tissue have been demonstrated. The current study was performed to determine(More)
OBJECTIVE Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium (mitoKATP) channels are present in the brain, and several reports have shown their neuroprotective, preconditioning effect against an ischemic insult. The role of mitoKATP channels in the penumbra area has not been studied thoroughly. In a model of venous ischemia, widespread penumbra-like(More)