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Expression of the antiviral cytokines IFN-␣͞␤ is among the most potent innate defenses of higher vertebrates to virus infections, which is controlled by the inducible transcription factor IFN regulatory factor (IRF)3. Borna disease virus (BDV) establishes persistent noncytolytic infections in animals and tissue culture cells, indicating that it can(More)
Borna disease virus (BDV) is a negative-strand RNA virus that infects the central nervous systems (CNS) of warm-blooded animals and causes disturbances of movement and behavior. The basis for neurotropism remains poorly understood; however, the observation that the distribution of infectious virus in immunocompetent rats is different from that in(More)
Borna disease virus (BDV)-induced meningoencephalitis is associated with the dysfunction of the cholinergic system. Temporal development of this cholinergic decline during pre-encephalitic and encephalitic stages of BDV infection remains however elusive. Changes in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were therefore(More)
Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is a key regulator of the immune response, but in almost the same manner it is involved in induction of inflammation, proliferation and regulation of apoptosis. In the central nervous system activated NF-kappaB plays a neuroprotective role. While in some neurodegenerative disorders the role of NF-kappaB is well(More)
In medically important infections with cytopathic viruses, neutralizing antibodies are generated within 6-14 days. In contrast, such protective antibodies appear late (50-150 days) after infection with immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in humans, or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in mice. However, during these infections,(More)