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According to phylogenetic data, about 100 years ago an avian influenza virus passed the species barrier (possibly first) to pigs and (possibly from there) to humans. In 1979 an avian influenza A virus (as a whole, without reassortment) again entered the pig population in northern Europe, forming a stable lineage. Here it is shown that the early North(More)
Infections with influenza A viruses result in the activation of a variety of intracellular signalling pathways. Recent findings suggest that in response to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which is commonly used as a mimic for accumulating viral RNA, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is activated and mediates activation of the transcription factor(More)
Recently we have shown that influenza A virus infection leads to activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and that this cellular reaction is dependent on the expression of the viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1). These data also suggested that PI3K activation confers a virus-supporting activity at intermediate stages of the(More)
Replication and transcription of the influenza virus genome takes place exclusively within the nucleus of the infected cells. The viral RNA genome, polymerase subunits, and nucleoprotein form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. Late in the infectious cycle RNPs have to be exported from the nucleus to be enwrapped into budding progeny virions at the cell(More)
Influenza A viruses are important worldwide pathogens in humans and different animal species. The functions of most of the ten different viral proteins of this negative-strand RNA virus have been well elucidated. However, little is known about the virus-induced intracellular signalling events that support viral replication. The Raf/MEK/ERK cascade is the(More)
This study demonstrates that neutralizing-antibody-producing B cells, CD4(+) T cells, and interferons (IFNs) are of key importance in virus control both in adoptive immunotherapy of persistent infection and in the late phase of acute infection with the WE strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We report the following results. (i) Clearance of(More)
Borna disease virus (BDV) causes acute and persistent infections in various vertebrates. During recent years, BDV-specific serum antibodies, BDV antigen, and BDV-specific nucleic acid were found in humans suffering from psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, viral antigen was detected in human autopsy brain tissue by immunohistochemical staining. Whether BDV(More)
Expression of the antiviral cytokines IFN-alpha/beta is among the most potent innate defenses of higher vertebrates to virus infections, which is controlled by the inducible transcription factor IFN regulatory factor (IRF)3. Borna disease virus (BDV) establishes persistent noncytolytic infections in animals and tissue culture cells, indicating that it can(More)
Mammalian influenza viruses are descendants of avian strains that crossed the species barrier and underwent further adaptation. Since 1997 in southeast Asia, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been causing severe, even fatal disease in humans. Although no lineages of this subtype have been established until now, such repeated events may(More)