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Although much is now known about eye movement detection, little is known about the higher cognitive processes involved in joint attention. We developed video stimuli which when watched, engender an experience of joint attention in the observer. This allowed us to compare an experience of joint attention to nonjoint attention within an fMRI scanning(More)
This study tested the hypothesis that 12-month-old infants' use of force against peers is associated with known risk factors for violence. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study, which included laboratory observations of firstborn British infants (N = 271) during simulated birthday parties. No gender differences in aggressiveness were observed. The(More)
Our aim was to develop an age-appropriate measure of early manifestations of aggression. We constructed a questionnaire about normative developmental milestones into which a set of items measuring infants' use of physical force against people and expressed anger were included. These items comprise the Cardiff Infant Contentiousness Scale (CICS). Evidence(More)
The control of social attention during early infancy was investigated in two studies. In both studies, an adult turned towards one of two targets within the infant's immediate visual field. We tested: (a) whether infants were able to follow the direction of the adult's head turn; and (b) whether following a head turn was accompanied by further gaze shifts(More)
We tested the hypothesis that developmental precursors to aggression are apparent in infancy. Up to three informants rated 301 firstborn infants for early signs of anger, hitting and biting; 279 (93%) were assessed again as toddlers. Informants' ratings were validated by direct observation at both ages. The precursor behaviours were significantly associated(More)
In response to claims that the quality (and in particular linearity) of children's mental representation of number acts as a constraint on number development, we carried out a longitudinal assessment of the relationships between number line estimation, counting, and mathematical abilities. Ninety-nine 5-year-olds were tested on 4 occasions at 3 monthly(More)
BACKGROUND The concept of well-being is multi-faceted by encompassing both positive and negative emotions and satisfaction with life. Measuring both positive and negative thoughts and emotions is highly relevant in maternity care that aims to optimise a woman's experience of pregnancy and childbirth, focussing on positive aspects of health and well-being,(More)
AIMS To estimate (1) the associations between parent-adolescent relationship, parental knowledge and subsequent adolescent drinking frequency and (2) the influence of alcohol use on parental knowledge. DESIGN Path analysis of school based cohort study with annual surveys. SETTING Post-primary schools from urban and intermediate/rural areas in Northern(More)
BACKGROUND Parent ratings on questionnaires may provide valid and cost-effective tools for screening cognitive development of children at risk of developmental delay. AIMS In this study, we examined the convergent validity of combining parent-based reports of non-verbal cognitive abilities (PARCA3) and verbal abilities (CDI-III) in relation to the(More)
BACKGROUND Links between mothers' postnatal depression (PND) and children's cognition have been identified in several samples, but the evidence is inconsistent. We hypothesized that PND may specifically interfere with infants' imitation, an early learning ability that features in early mother-infant interaction and is linked to memory, causal understanding(More)