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MPEG-4 audio represents a new kind of audio coding standard. Unlike its predecessors, MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 high-quality audio coding, and unlike the speech coding standards which have been completed by the ITU-T, it describes not a single or small set of highly e$cient compression schemes but a complete toolbox to do everything from low bit-rate speech coding(More)
Recent progress in the metallisation of poly-silicon thin-film solar cells on glass, created by solid phase crystallisation (SPC) of evaporated amorphous silicon (EVA), revealed that shunting through sub-micron holes (density 100–200 mm S2) in the films causes severe shunting problems when the air-side metal contact is deposited onto these diodes, by(More)
— Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass obtained by solid phase crystallisation (SPC) of PECVD-deposited a-Si have good photovoltaic efficiency. In this paper we present a functioning device fabrication scheme for equivalent solar cells made from evaporated SPC poly-Si films (EVA). Respectable efficiencies of above 4% are achieved for both(More)
Allylphosphonates of allylic alcohols were converted to conjugated dienyl phosphonates in a one-flask reaction, comprising a ring-closing metathesis (RCM), a base-induced ring-opening, and an alkylation. The ring-opening proceeds with very high diastereoselectivity, giving exclusively the (1Z,3E)-configured dienes. Single diastereomers and mixtures of(More)