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In this paper we present two empirical scoring functions, PLANTS(CHEMPLP) and PLANTS(PLP), designed for our docking algorithm PLANTS (Protein-Ligand ANT System), which is based on ant colony optimization (ACO). They are related, regarding their functional form, to parts of already published scoring functions and force fields. The parametrization procedure(More)
A central part of the rational drug development process is the prediction of the complex structure of a small ligand with a protein, the so-called protein-ligand docking problem, used in virtual screening of large databases and lead optimization. In the work presented here, we introduce a new docking algorithm called PLANTS (Protein-Ligand ANT System) which(More)
A major problem in structure-based virtual screening applications is the appropriate selection of a single or even multiple protein structures to be used in the virtual screening process. A priori it is unknown which protein structure(s) will perform best in a virtual screening experiment. We investigated the performance of ensemble docking, as a function(More)
The prediction of the complex structure of a small ligand with a protein, the so-called protein–ligand docking problem, is a central part of the rational drug design process. For this purpose, we introduce the docking algorithm PLANTS (Protein–Ligand ANT System), which is based on ant colony optimization, one of the most successful swarm intelligence(More)
Centrosomes associate with spindle poles; thus, the presence of two centrosomes promotes bipolar spindle assembly in normal cells. Cancer cells often contain supernumerary centrosomes, and to avoid multipolar mitosis and cell death, these are clustered into two poles by the microtubule motor protein HSET. We report the discovery of an allosteric inhibitor(More)
The performance of all four GOLD scoring functions has been evaluated for pose prediction and virtual screening under the standardized conditions of the comparative docking and scoring experiment reported in this Edition. Excellent pose prediction and good virtual screening performance was demonstrated using unmodified protein models and default parameter(More)
The flexible superimposition of biologically active ligands is a crucial step in ligand-based drug design. Here we present pharmACOphore, a new approach for pairwise as well as multiple flexible alignment of ligands based on ant colony optimization (ACO; Dorigo, M.; Stützle, T. Ant Colony Optimization; MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2004). An empirical(More)
This paper addresses two questions of key interest to researchers working with protein-ligand docking methods: (i) Why is there such a large variation in docking performance between different test sets reported in the literature? (ii) Are fragments more difficult to dock than druglike compounds? To answer these, we construct a test set of in-house X-ray(More)
The generation of molecular conformations and the evaluation of interaction potentials are common tasks in molecular modeling applications, particularly in protein-ligand or protein-protein docking programs. In this work, we present a GPU-accelerated approach capable of speeding up these tasks considerably. For the evaluation of interaction potentials in(More)