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OBJECTIVE To determine the excitability of the visual cortex by phosphene thresholds (PT) in patients with migraine using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with single- and paired-pulses. METHODS Nineteen patients with migraine with aura (MWA), 19 patients with migraine without aura (MWoA), and 22 control subjects were included. Patients were free(More)
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES The increasing spread of high-field and ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners has encouraged new discussion of the safety aspects of MRI. Few studies have been published on possible cognitive effects of MRI examinations. The aim of this study was to examine whether changes are measurable after MRI examinations(More)
Neuroimaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and therapeutic decision making in infectious diseases of the nervous system. The review summarizes imaging findings and recent advances in the diagnosis of pyogenic brain abscess, ventriculitis, viral disease including exotic and emergent viruses, and opportunistic disease. For each condition, the ensuing(More)
To better describe seizure type, frequency, and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and correlate these data with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, we retrospectively assessed medical charts and EEG studies of patients with PRES treated between 2004 and 2011. Data collected included(More)
Motor threshold (MT), as determined by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), is used as a parameter of cortex excitability. In TMS with single or repetitive pulses, stimulus intensities in general are referred to the individual MT, although it is unclear whether MT also reflects the excitability of nonmotor cortical areas such as the visual cortex.(More)
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by the polyomavirus JC is a well-recognised complication of AIDS. Purely infratentorial manifestations are rare. Introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been associated with a reduction in morbidity and an improvement in overall survival among HIV-infected individuals.(More)
The aim of the study was to further determine the pathophysiology, clinical course, MRI-features and response to therapy of chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS), which has recently been proposed as a rare chronic inflammatory central nervous system disorder responsive to immunosuppressive(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the change of incidence and prevalence of neurological disorders caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and opportunistic infections in HIV positive patients under treatment since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS The data of all HIV infected patients were retrospectively analysed,(More)
AIM The aim of this study was to describe lesion patterns, distribution, and evolution in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in a larger single-center population. METHODS Scans and follow-up, if available, of 50 patients with PRES between 2002 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Lesion patterns, extent, and signal intensity changes(More)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the CNS occurs most commonly in patients with severe immunosuppression such as those with advanced HIV infection (i.e. AIDS) or those who have undergone bone marrow or solid organ transplantation. Immunocompetent patients are affected very rarely. The infection of the CNS may affect the brain (diffuse encephalitis,(More)