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OBJECTIVE To determine the excitability of the visual cortex by phosphene thresholds (PT) in patients with migraine using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with single- and paired-pulses. METHODS Nineteen patients with migraine with aura (MWA), 19 patients with migraine without aura (MWoA), and 22 control subjects were included. Patients were free(More)
Neuroimaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and therapeutic decision making in infectious diseases of the nervous system. The review summarizes imaging findings and recent advances in the diagnosis of pyogenic brain abscess, ventriculitis, viral disease including exotic and emergent viruses, and opportunistic disease. For each condition, the ensuing(More)
Motor threshold (MT), as determined by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), is used as a parameter of cortex excitability. In TMS with single or repetitive pulses, stimulus intensities in general are referred to the individual MT, although it is unclear whether MT also reflects the excitability of nonmotor cortical areas such as the visual cortex.(More)
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES The increasing spread of high-field and ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners has encouraged new discussion of the safety aspects of MRI. Few studies have been published on possible cognitive effects of MRI examinations. The aim of this study was to examine whether changes are measurable after MRI examinations(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the change of incidence and prevalence of neurological disorders caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and opportunistic infections in HIV positive patients under treatment since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS The data of all HIV infected patients were retrospectively analysed,(More)
BACKGROUND Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was utilized to study 7 patients who had undergone hemispherectomy for control of longstanding intractable epilepsy to assess cortical motor reorganization and MEP (motor evoked potentials) ipsilateral to the remaining hemisphere. Five patients were seizure-free post-operatively. All patients displayed a(More)
The aim of the study was to further determine the pathophysiology, clinical course, MRI-features and response to therapy of chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS), which has recently been proposed as a rare chronic inflammatory central nervous system disorder responsive to immunosuppressive(More)
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a subacute demyelinating slow-virus encephalitis caused by the JC polyomavirus in 2-5% of patients with AIDS. MRI typically shows multiple lesions in the cerebral hemispheres. We present a rare case of rapidly evolving and lethal PML with a severe bulbar syndrome and spastic tetraparesis in a patient with(More)
Neuroimaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of neurologic infections. This article summarizes imaging findings in brain abscesses, ventriculitis, viral diseases, and opportunistic infections. In cases of uncomplicated meningitis, cranial computed tomography is sufficient to exclude brain edema, hydrocephalus, and skull base(More)