Oliver Kastrup

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RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES The increasing spread of high-field and ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners has encouraged new discussion of the safety aspects of MRI. Few studies have been published on possible cognitive effects of MRI examinations. The aim of this study was to examine whether changes are measurable after MRI examinations(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the change of incidence and prevalence of neurological disorders caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and opportunistic infections in HIV positive patients under treatment since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS The data of all HIV infected patients were retrospectively analysed,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the excitability of the visual cortex by phosphene thresholds (PT) in patients with migraine using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with single- and paired-pulses. METHODS Nineteen patients with migraine with aura (MWA), 19 patients with migraine without aura (MWoA), and 22 control subjects were included. Patients were free(More)
Neuroimaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and therapeutic decision making in infectious diseases of the nervous system. The review summarizes imaging findings and recent advances in the diagnosis of pyogenic brain abscess, ventriculitis, viral disease including exotic and emergent viruses, and opportunistic disease. For each condition, the ensuing(More)
We retrospectively identified opportunistic CNS infections in 655 patients who had undergone allogeneic, syngeneic or autologous BMT or PBSCT between 1990 and 1997. Twenty-seven patients (4%) developed CNS infections. All CNS infections occurred in allogeneic BMT or PBSCT patients. The most common CNS infections were toxoplasma encephalitis (74%) and(More)
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a leukoencephalopathy clinically characterized by headache, altered mental status, visual loss and seizures. Neuroimaging demonstrates symmetrical posterior cortical and subcortical lesions. The exact pathophysiology is unknown but there is a strong association with immunosuppressants and hypertension.(More)
Dopaminergic dysfunction is thought to play a pivotal role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related dementia. Decreased dopamine (DA) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuronal loss in the substantia nigra (SN) have been reported in HIV-infected patients, suggesting nigrostriatal damage. Structural changes detectable as hyperechogenicity in(More)
To better describe seizure type, frequency, and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and correlate these data with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, we retrospectively assessed medical charts and EEG studies of patients with PRES treated between 2004 and 2011. Data collected included(More)
Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulas (tDAVF) clinically present usually with subarachnoid and/or intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Reported rates range from 58% to 92% and neurological deficits occur in 79% to 92% of patients. This is due to venous congestion resulting from retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage, which rarely, can be clinically silent. A(More)
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by the polyomavirus JC is a well-recognised complication of AIDS. Purely infratentorial manifestations are rare. Introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been associated with a reduction in morbidity and an improvement in overall survival among HIV-infected individuals.(More)