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Mitochondria contain approximately 1,000 different proteins, most of which are imported from the cytosol. Two import pathways that direct proteins into the mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix have been known for many years. The identification of numerous new transport components in recent proteomic studies has led to novel mechanistic insight into these(More)
Closed head injury (CHI) remains the leading cause of death and persisting neurological impairment in young individuals in industrialized nations. Research efforts in the past years have brought evidence that the intracranial inflammatory response in the injured brain contributes to the neuropathological sequelae which are, in large part, responsible for(More)
Mitochondria import a large number of nuclear-encoded proteins via membrane-bound transport machineries; however, little is known about regulation of the preprotein translocases. We report that the main protein entry gate of mitochondria, the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex), is phosphorylated by cytosolic kinases-in particular, casein kinase(More)
Mitochondria are found in all eukaryotic cells and derive from a bacterial endosymbiont [1, 2]. The evolution of a protein import system was a prerequisite for the conversion of the endosymbiont into a true organelle. Tom40, the essential component of the protein translocase of the outer membrane, is conserved in mitochondria of almost all eukaryotes but(More)
Interleukin (IL)-18 is a potent inflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 family. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor (pro-IL-18), which is cleaved into its functionally active form by caspase-1. Resident cells of the CNS express IL-18 and caspase-1 constitutively, thus providing a local IL-18-dependent immune response. Recent studies have highlighted a(More)
BACKGROUND Complement represents a crucial mediator of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration after traumatic brain injury. The role of the terminal complement activation pathway, leading to generation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), has not been thoroughly investigated. CD59 is the major regulator of MAC formation and represents an essential(More)
Two DNA fragments, each containing tRNA(Arg)3 and a tRNA(Asp) gene in close conjunction, have been isolated from different genomic regions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleotide Nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene regions revealed that in both fragments the tRNA(Arg)3 coding region is located 5'-proximal to the tRNA(Asp) coding region. They are(More)
The complement system represents an important mediator of neuroinflammation in traumatic brain injury. We have previously shown that transgenic mice with central nervous system-targeted overexpression of Crry, a potent murine complement inhibitor at the level of C3 convertases, are protected from complement-mediated neuropathological sequelae in(More)
The degradation and recycling of cellular components is essential for cell growth and survival. Here we show how selective and non-selective lysosomal protein degradation pathways cooperate to ensure cell survival upon nutrient limitation. A quantitative analysis of starvation-induced proteome remodeling in yeast reveals comprehensive changes already in the(More)
Mitochondrial protein import is essential for all eukaryotes and mediated by hetero-oligomeric protein translocases thought to be conserved within all eukaryotes. We have identified and analysed the function and architecture of the non-conventional outer membrane (OM) protein translocase in the early diverging eukaryote Trypanosoma brucei. It consists of(More)