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Adult age differences in cognitive plasticity have been studied less often in working memory than in episodic memory. The authors investigated the effects of extensive working memory practice on performance improvement, transfer, and short-term maintenance of practice gains and transfer effects. Adults age 20-30 years and 70-80 years practiced a spatial(More)
BACKGROUND Within-person, across-time variations in processes and performance are intrinsic to all aspects of human functioning. OBJECTIVE This article starts with a brief taxonomy of intraindividual dynamics. There are adaptive as well as non-adaptive types of intraindividual variations that unfold with different degrees of reversibility on different(More)
Postural control in everyday life is generally accompanied by posture-unrelated cognitive activity. Thus, mild forms of dual-tasking postural control are the norm rather than the exception. Based on this consideration and available evidence, we propose and empirically examined, in young and old adults, a non-monotonic, U-shaped relation between the efficacy(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examined whether socioeconomic status (SES) determines the degree to which psychological and social resources such as optimistic self-beliefs and social support affect health. DESIGN We used data from the representative German Ageing Survey (N = 2,454, aged 40-85 years). Structural equation modeling was employed to examine whether(More)
This study investigated the interacting dynamics of different aspects of the social network, specifically network structure (size and frequency of contact), social activity engagement, and emotional support, and different aspects of health and subjective well-being in a representative sample of 2034 older adults across 6 years of development. The analysis,(More)
This study examined social inequalities in health in the second half of life. Data for empirical analyses came from the second wave of the German Ageing Survey (DEAS), an ongoing population-based, representative study of community dwelling persons living in Germany, aged 40–85 years (N = 2,787). Three different indicators for socioeconomic status (SES;(More)
OBJECTIVES It has been considered a fact that informal social activities promote well-being in old age, irrespective of whether they are performed with friends or family members. Fundamental differences in the relationship quality between family members (obligatory) and friends (voluntary), however, suggest differential effects on well-being. Further,(More)
Research on cross-domain couplings between sensorimotor and cognitive functions in older adults has gained momentum during recent years. Results of most studies point to increasing interdependencies between the two functional domains with advancing adult age. The causes of this increase are complex and show dynamic interactions across adult development.(More)
The importance of socioeconomic status (SES) for psychological functioning over the life span is increasingly acknowledged in psychological research. The Reserve Capacity Model by Gallo and Matthews (2003) suggests that SES is not only linked to physical health but also to the experience of positive and negative emotions. Moreover, due to differential(More)