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but rice will not make as effective use of the additional CO 2 as would other C 3 crops — those plants that, like 55% of grass species, have the basic mechanism of photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation. An alternative is to change rice into a C 4 plant, which could increase yield by up to 50% while using little or no more nitrogen or water. Although the(More)
As in humans, 'cognitive biases' in the way in which animals judge ambiguous stimuli may be influenced by emotional state and hence a valuable new indicator of animal emotion. There is increasing evidence that animals experiencing different emotional states following exposure to long-term environmental manipulations show contrasting biases in their(More)
The refinement of husbandry and procedures to reduce animal suffering and improve welfare is an essential component of humane science. Successful refinement depends upon the ability to assess animal welfare effectively, and detect any signs of pain or distress as rapidly as possible, so that any suffering can be alleviated. This document provides practical(More)
The scientific study of animal emotion is an important emerging discipline in subjects ranging from neuroscience to animal welfare research. In the absence of direct measures of conscious emotion, indirect behavioural and physiological measures are used. However, these may have significant limitations (e.g. indicating emotional arousal but not valence(More)
A better understanding of animal emotion is an important goal in disciplines ranging from neuroscience to animal welfare science. The conscious experience of emotion cannot be assessed directly, but neural, behavioural and physiological indicators of emotion can be measured. Researchers have used these measures to characterize how animals respond to(More)
Decision-making under ambiguity in cognitive bias tasks is a promising new indicator of affective valence in animals. Rat studies support the hypothesis that animals in a negative affective state evaluate ambiguous cues negatively. Prior automated operant go/go judgement bias tasks have involved training rats that an auditory cue of one frequency predicts a(More)
The removal of individuals from social groups, e.g. in order to maintain appropriate stocking densities in groups of rapidly growing young laboratory rats, is often necessary. However, such removals may be stressful and few studies have investigated their effects on the behaviour, physiology and welfare of the remaining group members. In this study we(More)
The authors used laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) of known relatedness and contrasting familiarity to assess the potential effect of preexperimental social experience on subsequent social recognition. The authors used the habituation-discrimination technique, which assumes that multiple exposures to a social stimulus (e.g., soiled bedding) ensure a(More)
This experiment investigated how contextual cues affect recognition of conspecific odors in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus). Rats received 5 encounters with the same odor in the same context. For the 6th test encounter, all rats received a simultaneous presentation of the original odor and a novel odor. The authors tested 1 group of rats (context same)(More)
This experiment was carried out to investigate the long-term effects of enhancing cage complexity on behavioural measures of welfare in laboratory rats. We housed 72 rats in groups of four in either 'enriched' or 'unenriched' cages for six weeks. Scan and focal animal sampling were conducted in both the light and dark phase of the second, fourth and sixth(More)