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but rice will not make as effective use of the additional CO 2 as would other C 3 crops — those plants that, like 55% of grass species, have the basic mechanism of photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation. An alternative is to change rice into a C 4 plant, which could increase yield by up to 50% while using little or no more nitrogen or water. Although the(More)
As in humans, 'cognitive biases' in the way in which animals judge ambiguous stimuli may be influenced by emotional state and hence a valuable new indicator of animal emotion. There is increasing evidence that animals experiencing different emotional states following exposure to long-term environmental manipulations show contrasting biases in their(More)
A better understanding of animal emotion is an important goal in disciplines ranging from neuroscience to animal welfare science. The conscious experience of emotion cannot be assessed directly, but neural, behavioural and physiological indicators of emotion can be measured. Researchers have used these measures to characterize how animals respond to(More)
The scientific study of animal emotion is an important emerging discipline in subjects ranging from neuroscience to animal welfare research. In the absence of direct measures of conscious emotion, indirect behavioural and physiological measures are used. However, these may have significant limitations (e.g. indicating emotional arousal but not valence(More)
The refinement of husbandry and procedures to reduce animal suffering and improve welfare is an essential component of humane science. Successful refinement depends upon the ability to assess animal welfare effectively, and detect any signs of pain or distress as rapidly as possible, so that any suffering can be alleviated. This document provides practical(More)
This paper describes and evaluates a flexible, non-invasive tagging system for the automated identification and long-term monitoring of individual three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. The system is based on barcoded tags, which can be reliably and robustly detected and decoded to provide information on an individual's identity and location.(More)
Adult rats presented with a juvenile conspecific for 5 min on two occasions, separated by a Ž . 15-min inter-exposure interval IEI , investigated the reintroduced juvenile significantly less in the second encounter. It is suggested that this was because the adult rats remembered the identity of the juvenile, because when a novel juvenile was introduced for(More)
The removal of individuals from social groups, e.g. in order to maintain appropriate stocking densities in groups of rapidly growing young laboratory rats, is often necessary. However, such removals may be stressful and few studies have investigated their effects on the behaviour, physiology and welfare of the remaining group members. In this study we(More)
Decision-making under ambiguity in cognitive bias tasks is a promising new indicator of affective valence in animals. Rat studies support the hypothesis that animals in a negative affective state evaluate ambiguous cues negatively. Prior automated operant go/go judgement bias tasks have involved training rats that an auditory cue of one frequency predicts a(More)
The authors used laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) of known relatedness and contrasting familiarity to assess the potential effect of preexperimental social experience on subsequent social recognition. The authors used the habituation-discrimination technique, which assumes that multiple exposures to a social stimulus (e.g., soiled bedding) ensure a(More)