Oliver Griesbeck

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Yellow mutants of the green fluorescent protein (YFP) are crucial constituents of genetically encoded indicators of signal transduction and fusions to monitor protein-protein interactions. However, previous YFPs show excessive pH sensitivity, chloride interference, poor photostability, or poor expression at 37 degrees C. Protein evolution in Escherichia(More)
Cameleons are genetically-encoded fluorescent indicators for Ca2+ based on green fluorescent protein variants and calmodulin (CaM). Because cameleons can be targeted genetically and imaged by one- or two-photon excitation microscopy, they offer great promise for monitoring Ca2+ in whole organisms, tissues, organelles, and submicroscopic environments in(More)
Neurons in the nervous system can change their functional properties over time. At present, there are no techniques that allow reliable monitoring of changes within identified neurons over repeated experimental sessions. We increased the signal strength of troponin C-based calcium biosensors in the low-calcium regime by mutagenesis and domain rearrangement(More)
Genetic calcium probes offer tremendous potential in the fields of neuroscience, cell biology, and pharmaceutical screening. Previously, ratiometric and non-ratiometric indicators of cellular calcium dynamics have been described that consist of mutants of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as fluorophores and calmodulin as calcium-binding moiety in several(More)
Recent advance in the design of genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) has further increased their potential for direct measurements of activity in intact neural circuits. However, a quantitative analysis of their fluorescence changes (DeltaF) in vivo and the relationship to the underlying neural activity and changes in intracellular calcium(More)
Neurotrophins, secreted in an activity-dependent manner, are thought to be involved in the activity-dependent refinement of synaptic connections. Here we demonstrate that in hippocampal neurons and the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 application of exogenous neurotrophins induces secretion of neurotrophins, an effect that is mediated by the activation(More)
Neurotrophins play a crucial role in the regulation of survival and maintenance of specific functions of various populations of neurons. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and neurotrophin 4/5 (NT-4) have been shown to support motoneuron survival during embryonic development and, after birth, to protect motoneurons from(More)
Genetically encoded calcium biosensors have become valuable tools in cell biology and neuroscience, but some aspects such as signal strength and response kinetics still need improvement. Here we report the generation of a FRET-based calcium biosensor employing troponin C as calcium-binding moiety that is fast, is stable in imaging experiments, and shows a(More)
BACKGROUND The green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been widely used in cell biology as a marker of gene expression, label of cellular structures, fusion tag or as a crucial constituent of genetically encoded biosensors. Mutagenesis of the wildtype gene has yielded a number of improved variants such as EGFP or colour variants suitable for fluorescence(More)
In the visual system of Drosophila, photoreceptors R1-R6 relay achromatic brightness information to five parallel pathways. Two of them, the lamina monopolar cells L1 and L2, represent the major input lines to the motion detection circuitry. We devised a new method for optical recording of visually evoked changes in intracellular Ca2+ in neurons using(More)