Oliver F. Brandenberg

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Interference with virus entry is known to be the principle mechanism of HIV neutralization by antibodies, including 2F5 and 4E10, which bind to the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the gp41 envelope protein. However, to date, the precise molecular events underlying neutralization by MPER-specific antibodies remain incompletely understood. In this(More)
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The HIV-1 envelope trimer adopts a quaternary conformation that effectively shields neutralization-sensitive domains and thus represents a major obstacle for natural and vaccine-elicited antibody responses. By using a structure-function analysis based on a specifically devised mathematical model, we demonstrate in this study that protection from(More)
Variable loops 1 and 2 (V1V2) of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 perform two key functions: ensuring envelope trimer entry competence and shielding against neutralizing antibodies. While preserving entry functionality would suggest a high need for V1V2 sequence optimization and conservation, shielding efficacy is known to depend on a high flexibility(More)
HIV-1 enters target cells by virtue of envelope glycoprotein trimers that are incorporated at low density in the viral membrane. How many trimers are required to interact with target cell receptors to mediate virus entry, the HIV entry stoichiometry, still awaits clarification. Here, we provide estimates of the HIV entry stoichiometry utilizing a combined(More)
HIV-1 infection starts with fusion of the viral and the host cell membranes, a process mediated by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer. The number of trimers required to complete membrane fusion, referred to as HIV-1 entry stoichiometry, remains under debate. A precise definition of HIV-1 entry stoichiometry is important as it reflects the efficacy of(More)
The spikes of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mediate viral entry and are the most important targets for neutralizing antibodies. Each spike consists of three identical subunits. The role of the spike's subunits in antibody binding is not fully understood. One experimental approach to analyze trimer function uses assays with mixed envelope trimer(More)
The surge in reports of heme-dependent proteins as catalysts for abiotic, synthetically valuable carbene and nitrene transfer reactions dramatically illustrates the evolvability of the protein world and our nascent ability to exploit that for new enzyme chemistry. We highlight the latest additions to the hemoprotein-catalyzed reaction repertoire (including(More)
The potential of broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting the HIV-1 envelope trimer to prevent HIV-1 transmission has opened new avenues for therapies and vaccines. However, their implementation remains challenging and would profit from a deepened mechanistic understanding of HIV-antibody interactions and the mucosal transmission process. In this study we(More)