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The formate transporter FocA was described to switch its mode of operation from a passive export channel at high external pH to a secondary active formate/H(+) importer at low pH. The crystal structure of Salmonella typhimurium FocA at pH 4.0 shows that this switch involves a major rearrangement of the amino termini of individual protomers in the pentameric(More)
A high-resolution crystallographic analysis of the nitrogenase MoFe-protein reveals a previously unrecognized ligand coordinated to six iron atoms in the center of the catalytically essential FeMo-cofactor. The electron density for this ligand is masked in structures with resolutions lower than 1.55 angstroms, owing to Fourier series termination ripples(More)
The identity of the interstitial light atom in the center of the FeMo cofactor of nitrogenase has been enigmatic since its discovery. Atomic-resolution x-ray diffraction data and an electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) analysis now provide direct evidence that the ligand is a carbon species.
The mechanism of nitrogenase remains enigmatic, with a major unresolved issue concerning how inhibitors and substrates bind to the active site. We report a crystal structure of carbon monoxide (CO)-inhibited nitrogenase molybdenum-iron (MoFe)-protein at 1.50 angstrom resolution, which reveals a CO molecule bridging Fe2 and Fe6 of the FeMo-cofactor. The μ2(More)
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) aldolase/phosphatase is a bifunctional, thermostable enzyme that catalyses two subsequent steps in gluconeogenesis in most archaea and in deeply branching bacterial lineages. It mediates the aldol condensation of heat-labile dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) to FBP, as well as the(More)
One of the most complex biosynthetic processes in metallobiochemistry is the assembly of nitrogenase, the key enzyme in biological nitrogen fixation. We describe here the crystal structure of an iron-molybdenum cofactor-deficient form of the nitrogenase MoFe protein, into which the cofactor is inserted in the final step of MoFe protein assembly. The MoFe(More)
Sirtuins are a highly conserved class of NAD(+)-dependent lysine deacylases. The human isotype Sirt2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer, inflammation and neurodegeneration, which makes the modulation of Sirt2 activity a promising strategy for pharmaceutical intervention. A rational basis for the development of optimized Sirt2 inhibitors is(More)
Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is generated by natural and anthropogenic processes and has a critical role in environmental chemistry. It has an ozone-depleting potential similar to that of hydrochlorofluorocarbons as well as a global warming potential exceeding that of CO(2) 300-fold. In bacterial denitrification, N(2)O is reduced to N(2) by the copper-dependent(More)
Iron-sulfur flavoproteins (ISF) constitute a widespread family of redox-active proteins in anaerobic prokaryotes. Based on sequence homologies, their overall structure is expected to be similar to that of flavodoxins, but in addition to a flavin mononucleotide cofactor they also contain a cubane-type [4Fe:4S] cluster. In order to gain further insight into(More)
Biological nitrogen fixation is enabled by molybdenum-dependent nitrogenase enzymes, which effect the reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia using an Fe7MoS9C active site, referred to as the iron molybdenum cofactor or FeMoco. In this mini-review, we summarize the current understanding of the molecular and electronic structure of FeMoco. The advances in our(More)