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Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has a multifactorial pathobiology. Vasoconstriction, remodeling of the pulmonary vessel wall, and thrombosis contribute to increased pulmonary vascular resistance in PAH. The process of pulmonary vascular remodeling involves all layers of the vessel wall and is complicated by cellular heterogeneity within each(More)
The role of endogenous inducers of inflammation is poorly understood. To produce the proinflammatory master cytokine interleukin (IL)-1beta, macrophages need double stimulation with ligands to both Toll-like receptors (TLRs) for IL-1beta gene transcription and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors for activation of the inflammasome. It is(More)
RATIONALE Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, and usually lethal fibrotic lung disease characterized by profound changes in epithelial cell phenotype and fibroblast proliferation. OBJECTIVES To determine changes in expression and role of microRNAs in IPF. METHODS RNA from 10 control and 10 IPF tissues was hybridized on Agilent(More)
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disorder that may be hereditable (HPAH), idiopathic (IPAH), or associated with either drug-toxin exposures or other medical conditions. Familial cases have long been recognized and are usually due to mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 gene (BMPR2), or, much less commonly, 2 other(More)
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, dysregulated response to alveolar injury that culminates in compromised lung function from excess extracellular matrix production. Associated with high morbidity and mortality, IPF is generally refractory to current pharmacological therapies. We examined fibrotic lungs from mice and from patients with(More)
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by distorted lung architecture and loss of respiratory function. Enhanced (myo)fibroblast activation, ECM deposition, and alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cell dysfunction contribute to IPF pathogenesis. However, the molecular pathways linking ATII cell dysfunction with the development of fibrosis are(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent peptide growth factor specific for vascular endothelial cells, which promotes neovascularization and increases vascular permeability in vivo. Enhanced microvascular permeability and edema are common characteristics of inflammatory and neoplastic disorders. Two proinflammatory mediators,(More)
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor present in most cell types. Upon ligand binding, the GR is activated and translocates into the nucleus where it transmits the anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids. Here, we describe the ligand-independent activation of GR by the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR)(More)
BACKGROUND Low biocompatibility of peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDF) contributes to mesothelial injury. We investigated whether the heat shock proteins (HSP)-27, HSP-72, and HSP-90 are differentially induced upon exposure of mesothelial cells to PDF and whether this was affected by selective modulation of the physicochemical properties of PDF. METHODS(More)
RATIONALE Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a devastating disease, for which no causal therapy is available. OBJECTIVES To characterize WNT/β-catenin signaling in COPD in humans and elucidate its potential role as a preventive and therapeutic target in experimental emphysema in mice. METHODS The expression, localization, and activity of(More)