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A wide variety of fat suppression and water-fat separation methods are used to suppress fat signal and improve visualization of abnormalities. This article reviews the most commonly used techniques for fat suppression and fat-water imaging including 1) chemically selective fat suppression pulses "FAT-SAT"; 2) spatial-spectral pulses (water excitation); 3)(More)
Recent work in k-t BLAST and undersampled projection angiography has emphasized the value of using training data sets obtained during the acquisition of a series of images. These techniques have used iterative algorithms guided by the training set information to reconstruct time frames sampled at well below the Nyquist limit. We present here a simple(More)
PURPOSE To implement and validate in vivo radial 4D flow MRI for quantification of blood flow in the hepatic arterial, portal venous, and splanchnic vasculature of healthy volunteers and patients with portal hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventeen patients with portal hypertension and seven subjects with no liver disease were included in this Health(More)
Traditionally, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of flow using phase contrast (PC) methods is accomplished using methods that resolve single-directional flow in two spatial dimensions (2D) of an individual slice. More recently, three-dimensional (3D) spatial encoding combined with three-directional velocity-encoded phase contrast MRI (here termed 4D flow(More)
Pulsatile blood flow through the cavities of the heart and great vessels is time-varying and multidirectional. Access to all regions, phases and directions of cardiovascular flows has formerly been limited. Four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has enabled more comprehensive access to such flows, with typical spatial resolution(More)
BACKGROUND To assess changes in right heart flow and pulmonary artery hemodynamics in patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) we used whole heart, four dimensional (4D) velocity mapping (VM) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). METHODS CMR studies were performed in 11 subjects with rTOF (5M/6F; 20.1 ± 12.4 years) and 10 normal volunteers(More)
PURPOSE To estimate surface-based wall shear stress (WSS) and evaluate flow patterns in ascending aortic dilatation (AscAD) using a high-resolution, time-resolved, three-dimensional (3D), three-directional velocity encoded, radially undersampled phase contrast MR sequence (4D PC-MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS 4D PC-MRI was performed in 11 patients with AscAD(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Arterial wall enhancement on vessel wall MRI was described in intracranial inflammatory arterial disease. We hypothesized that circumferential aneurysmal wall enhancement (CAWE) could be an indirect marker of aneurysmal wall inflammation and, therefore, would be more frequent in unstable (ruptured, symptomatic, or undergoing(More)
PURPOSE To demonstrate the feasibility of PC-VIPR (Phase Contrast Vastly undersampled Imaging with Projection Reconstruction) for the depiction and hemodynamic analysis of hepatic and splanchnic vessels in patients with portal hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-four cirrhotic patients (55.9 ± 10.4 years) were scanned using 5-point PC-VIPR for high(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 4D PCMRI can be used to quantify pulsatile hemodynamics in multiple cerebral arteries. The aim of this study was to compare 4D PCMRI and 2D PCMRI for assessments of pulsatile hemodynamics in major cerebral arteries. MATERIALS AND METHODS We scanned the internal carotid artery, the anterior cerebral artery, the basilar artery, and(More)