Quantum computers have the potential to solve certain problems faster than classical computers. To exploit their power, it is necessary to perform interqubit operations and generate entangled states. Spin qubits are a promising candidate for implementing a quantum processor because of their potential for scalability and miniaturization. However, their weak… (More)
Two level systems that can be reliably controlled and measured hold promise as qubits both for metrology and for quantum information science. Since a fluctuating environment limits the performance of qubits in both capacities, understanding environmental coupling and dynamics is key to improving qubit performance. We show measurements of the level splitting… (More)
We demonstrate a fabrication method to define high-density, uniform nanostructures by electron beam lithography at conventional beam voltages ͑Ͻ40 kV͒. Here we optimize the exposure and development conditions needed to generate such nanostructure arrays using polymethylmethacrylate as positive resist and isopropyl alcohol as a developer. Arrays of 12 nm… (More)
The electron spin is a natural two-level system that allows a qubit to be encoded. When localized in a gate-defined quantum dot, the electron spin provides a promising platform for a future functional quantum computer. The essential ingredient of any quantum computer is entanglement—for the case of electron-spin qubits considered here—commonly achieved via… (More)
We designed, fabricated, and characterized a binary diffractive lens with features less than 60 nm. The lens was designed for operation in the red portion of the spectrum. Experimental measurements of lens performance agree with predictions generated by rigorous models of diffraction.
The two-dimensional electron system is a powerful laboratory for investigating the physics of interacting particles. Application of a large magnetic field produces massively degenerate quantum levels known as Landau levels; within a Landau level the kinetic energy of the electrons is suppressed, and electron-electron interactions set the only energy scale.… (More)
Spectroscopic methods involving the sudden injection or ejection of electrons in materials are a powerful probe of electronic structure and interactions. These techniques, such as photoemission and tunnelling, yield measurements of the 'single-particle' density of states spectrum of a system. This density of states is proportional to the probability of… (More)