Oliver D. Howes

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The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia has been one of the most enduring ideas in psychiatry. Initially, the emphasis was on a role of hyperdopaminergia in the etiology of schizophrenia (version I), but it was subsequently reconceptualized to specify subcortical hyperdopaminergia with prefrontal hypodopaminergia (version II). However, these hypotheses(More)
CONTEXT A substantial proportion of people at clinical high risk (HR) of psychosis will develop a psychotic disorder over time. Cognitive deficits may predate the onset of psychosis and may be useful as markers of increased vulnerability to illness. OBJECTIVE To quantitatively examine the cognitive functioning in subjects at HR in the literature to date.(More)
CONTEXT A major limitation on the development of biomarkers and novel interventions for schizophrenia is that its pathogenesis is unknown. Although elevated striatal dopamine activity is thought to be fundamental to schizophrenia, it is unclear when this neurochemical abnormality develops in relation to the onset of illness and how this relates to the(More)
CONTEXT Current drug treatments for schizophrenia are inadequate for many patients, and despite 5 decades of drug discovery, all of the treatments rely on the same mechanism: dopamine D(2) receptor blockade. Understanding the pathophysiology of the disorder is thus likely to be critical to the rational development of new treatments for schizophrenia. (More)
OBJECTIVE While there is robust evidence of elevated dopamine synthesis capacity once a psychotic disorder has developed, little is known about whether it is altered prior to the first episode of frank illness. The authors addressed this issue by measuring dopamine synthesis capacity in individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis and then following them to(More)
BACKGROUND High rates of osteoporosis in schizophrenia may result from the prolactin-raising effects of some antipsychotic medication. Aims To examine bone mineral density in relation to relevant endocrine variables in patients with schizophrenia taking prolactin-raising antipsychotics. METHOD Fifty-five patients who had been receiving prolactin-raising(More)
Elevated in vivo markers of presynaptic striatal dopamine activity have been a consistent finding in schizophrenia, and include a large effect size elevation in dopamine synthesis capacity. However, it is not known if the dopaminergic dysfunction is limited to the striatal terminals of dopamine neurons, or is also evident in the dopamine neuron cell bodies,(More)
OBJECTIVE Elevated presynaptic striatal dopaminergic function is a robust feature of schizophrenia. However, the relationship between this dopamine abnormality and the response to dopamine-blocking antipsychotic treatments is unclear. The authors tested the hypothesis that in patients with schizophrenia the response to antipsychotic treatment would be(More)
Schizophrenia remains a major burden on patients and society. The dopamine hypothesis attempts to explain the pathogenic mechanisms of the disorder, and the neurodevelopmental hypothesis the origins. In the past 10 years an alternative, the cognitive model, has gained popularity. However, the first two theories have not been satisfactorily integrated, and(More)
Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission is implicated in cognitive and emotional processes and a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. The use of positron emission tomography (PET) to measure ligand displacement has allowed estimation of endogenous dopamine release in the human brain; however, applying this methodology to assess central 5-HT release has proved(More)