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The sera genes of the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium encode a family of unique proteins that are maximally expressed at the time of egress of parasites from infected red blood cells. These multi-domain proteins are unique, containing a central papain-like cysteine-protease fragment enclosed between the disulfide-linked N- and C-terminal domains.(More)
Potassium channels embedded in cell membranes employ gates to regulate K+ current. While a specific constriction in the permeation pathway has historically been implicated in gating, recent reports suggest that the signature ion selectivity filter located in the outer membrane leaflet may be equally important. Inwardly rectifying K+ channels also control(More)
Peptidic oligomers that contain both α- and β-amino acid residues, in regular patterns throughout the backbone, are emerging as structural mimics of α-helix-forming conventional peptides (composed exclusively of α-amino acid residues). Here we describe a comprehensive evaluation of diverse α/β-peptide homologues of the Bim BH3 domain in terms of their(More)
Schistosomiasis is an infectious disease caused by parasites of the phylum platyhelminthe. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of a Bcl-2-regulated apoptosis pathway in Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni. Genomic, biochemical, and cell-based mechanistic studies provide evidence for a tripartite pathway, similar to that in humans(More)
Cell membranes present a naturally impervious barrier to aqueous solutes, such that the physiochemical environment on either side of the lipid bilayer can substantially differ. Integral membrane proteins are embedded in this heterogeneous lipid environment, wherein the juxtaposition of apolar and polar molecular surfaces defines factors such as transverse(More)
Invasion of human red blood cells by Plasmodium falciparum involves interaction of the merozoite form through proteins on the surface coat. The erythrocyte binding-like protein family functions after initial merozoite interaction by binding via the Duffy binding-like (DBL) domain to receptors on the host red blood cell. The merozoite surface proteins DBL1(More)
The attachment of a sugar to a hydrophobic polyisoprenyl carrier is the first step for all extracellular glycosylation processes. The enzymes that perform these reactions, polyisoprenyl-glycosyltransferases (PI-GTs) include dolichol phosphate mannose synthase (DPMS), which generates the mannose donor for glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we(More)
The CDP-alcohol phosphotransferase (CDP-AP) family of integral membrane enzymes catalyses the transfer of a substituted phosphate group from a CDP-linked donor to an alcohol acceptor. This is an essential reaction for phospholipid biosynthesis across all kingdoms of life, and it is catalysed solely by CDP-APs. Here we report the 2.0 Å resolution crystal(More)
Malaria parasite cell motility is a process that is dependent on the dynamic turnover of parasite-derived actin filaments. Despite its central role, actin's polymerization state is controlled by a set of identifiable regulators that is markedly reduced compared with those of other eukaryotic cells. In Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent species that(More)
Polymyxins are antibiotics used in the last line of defense to combat multidrug-resistant infections by Gram-negative bacteria. Polymyxin resistance arises through charge modification of the bacterial outer membrane with the attachment of the cationic sugar 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose to lipid A, a reaction catalyzed by the integral membrane lipid-to-lipid(More)