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Reliability monitoring is an important part of process control in high volume production. For the back end of line (BEOL), a wafer-level electromigration (WL-EM) test is usually the method of choice to get a good indication of process variation (Schuster, 2001). In this work we present practical normalization procedures to ensure an appropriate wafer to(More)
The influence of the via bottom geometry on stress development in Cu interconnects is investigated by FE-Simulation. The mechanical characterization shows the weakest link concerning the reliability of the different via geometries. The via with the cone-shaped bottom seems to have the best reliability with respect to mechanical stress.