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It has previously been reported that cholera toxin (CT) is a potent mucosal adjuvant that enhances Th2 or mixed Th1/Th2 type responses to coadministered foreign Ag. Here we demonstrate that CT also promotes the generation of regulatory T (Tr) cells against bystander Ag. Parenteral immunization of mice with Ag in the presence of CT induced T cells that(More)
TLR ligands are potent adjuvants and promote Th1 responses to coadministered Ags by inducing innate IL-12 production. We found that TLR ligands also promote the induction of IL-10-secreting regulatory T (Treg) cells through p38 MAPK-induced IL-10 production by dendritic cells (DC). Inhibition of p38 suppressed TLR-induced IL-10 and PGE(2) and enhanced IL-12(More)
Cholera toxin (CT) is a potent vaccine adjuvant when administered via parenteral, mucosal, or transcutaneous routes. It also inhibits innate inflammatory responses induced by pathogen-derived molecules, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We demonstrated previously that CT promotes the induction of regulatory type 1 T cells (Tr1) as well as T helper type 2(More)
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown to modulate immune responses and have therapeutic effects in inflammatory disorders. However, the influence of PUFA on dendritic cells (DC), key cells of the innate immune system in shaping adaptive immune responses, has not yet been defined. In this study, we examine the effects of the cis-9, trans-11(More)
response to severe trauma is viewed as an early systemic inflammatory response followed by a temporary compensatory anti-inflammatory response and the suppression of adaptive immunity. It is thought that serious complications are commonly associated with a ‘second hit’ (for example, infection or surgical stress) during this compensatory period that results(More)
plasma cells, which reside in bone marrow niches, it had been pre‐ sumed that memory CD4+ T cells constantly circulate in the body for surveillance. Now, Tokoyoda and colleagues show that memory CD4+ T cells do in fact reside and rest in the bone marrow, where they associate with interleukin‐7 (IL‐7)‐expressing stromal cells. The authors tracked the tissue(More)
have been shown to be mediators of antigen-specific peripheral T cell tolerance through the expression of peripheral tissue antigens (PTAs). However, the specific cell subsets involved were not known. Now, two papers published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine have identified these cell subsets and some of the PTAs that they express, highlighting the(More)
The mucosal adjuvant properties of the three type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) from the European mistletoe, Viscum album L., were investigated. Mistletoe lectins were compared with cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvants when delivered nasotracheally together with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D2 (gD2). All three mistletoe lectins (MLI, MLII, MLIII)(More)
box P3 (FOXP3) has been used for several years to identify regulatory T cells (TReg cells). Now, a new study published in The Journal of Experimental Medicine shows that the expression of FOXP3 by immune cells is not restricted to TReg cells and that FOXP3+ macrophages have suppressive functions and promote tumour growth. While evaluating FOXP3+ TReg cells(More)
Over the past 10 years, the market for monoclonal antibodies has grown exponentially. This focus issue brings together articles on the basic biology of antibodies and their therapeutic use, providing an overview of the latest prospects and continued challenges for the development of safe, efficient and affordable therapeutic antibodies.