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We suggest that the evolution of the population structure of microbial pathogens is influenced by that of modern humans. Consequently, the timing of hallmark changes in bacterial genomes within the last 100,000 yr may be attempted by comparison with relevant human migrations. Here, we used a lineage within Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a Beijing genotype, as(More)
A total of 183 epidemiologically unlinked Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates collected in the St. Petersburg area of Russia from 1996 to 2001 were screened for alterations in codon 306 of the embB gene; mutations in this codon are reported to confer resistance to ethambutol (EMB). The embB306 mutations were detected in 14 (48.3%) of 29 EMB-resistant(More)
This investigation evaluated the potential of RNA/RNA mismatch analysis for the detection of rifampin resistance among 38 multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from northwestern Russia. The results obtained were compared with a commercialized line probe assay and rpoB sequencing, and the genetic diversity of the isolates was(More)
We describe an allele-specific PCR assay to detect mutations in three codons of the rpoB gene (516, 526, and 531) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains; mutations in these codons are reported to account for majority of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates resistant to rifampin (RIF), a marker of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Three different(More)
We compared the population structure and drug resistance patterns of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains currently circulating in the Beijing area of China. One hundred thirteen of 123 strains belonged to the Beijing family genotypes defined by spoligotyping. The Beijing genotype strains were further subdivided into old and modern sublineages on the(More)
The newly proposed variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing system, which includes a basic 15-locus set and a high-resolution 24-locus set (P. Supply et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:4498-4510, 2006), demonstrated a high power for the discrimination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates collected worldwide. To evaluate its ability to differentiate the(More)
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype strains appear to be hypervirulent and associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Therefore, the development of a both rapid and simple method to detect the M. tuberculosis Beijing genotype is of clinical interest per se. Previously, we described a simple and fast approach to detect the Beijing genotype(More)
The present update on the global distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex spoligotypes provides both the octal and binary descriptions of the spoligotypes for M. tuberculosis complex, including Mycobacterium bovis, from >90 countries (13,008 patterns grouped into 813 shared types containing 11,708 isolates and 1,300 orphan patterns). A number of(More)
A total of 204 isoniazid (INH)-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from different patients in the northwestern region of Russia from 1996 to 2001 were screened by a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. This assay uses HapII cleavage of an amplified fragment of the katG gene to detect the transversion 315AGC-->ACC(More)
We present a short summary of recent observations on the global distribution of the major clades of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of tuberculosis. This global distribution was defined by data-mining of an international spoligotyping database, SpolDB3. This database contains 11708 patterns from as many clinical isolates(More)