Olga V. Demikhova

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BACKGROUND The prevalence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis is increasing due to the expanded use of second-line drugs in people with multidrug-resistant (MDR) disease. We prospectively assessed resistance to second-line antituberculosis drugs in eight countries. METHODS From Jan 1, 2005, to Dec 31, 2008, we enrolled consecutive adults with(More)
BACKGROUND Sputum culture conversion is often used as an early microbiological endpoint in phase 2 clinical trials of tuberculosis treatment on the basis of its assumed predictive value for end-of-treatment outcome, particularly in patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis. We aimed to assess the validity of sputum culture conversion on solid media at(More)
The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of Cepheid® Xpert MTB/RIF® (“Xpert”) and TB-Biochip® MDR (“TB-Biochip”). Sputum specimens from adults with presumptive tuberculosis (TB) were homogenized and split for: (1) direct Xpert and microscopy, and (2) concentration for Xpert, microscopy, culture [Lowenstein–Jensen (LJ) solid media and(More)
Data from a large multicenter observational study of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) were analyzed to simulate the possible use of 2 new approaches to treatment of MDR TB: a short (9-month) regimen and a bedaquiline-containing regimen. Of 1,254 patients, 952 (75.9%) had no resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable(More)
BACKGROUND For treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB), the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a regimen of at least four second-line drugs that are likely to be effective as well as pyrazinamide. WHO guidelines indicate only marginal benefit for regimens based directly on drug susceptibility testing (DST) results. Recent evidence from(More)
BACKGROUND Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis are emerging worldwide. The Green Light Committee initiative supported programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis in 90 countries. We used estimates from the Preserving Effective TB Treatment Study to predict MDR and XDR tuberculosis trends in four countries(More)
BACKGROUND Resistance to second-line drugs develops during treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, but the impact on treatment outcome has not been determined. METHODS Patients with MDR tuberculosis starting second-line drug treatment were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Sputum cultures were analyzed at a central reference laboratory.(More)
Surfactants have the potential to overcome natural resistance of MTB to antibiotics which is mediated by barriers that impede the penetration of drugs to their targets. A major component of this barrier is trehalose dimycolate (TDM) which surrounds the bacteria with a thick lipid shield. In this study dodecyl maltoside (DDM) was evaluated for this purpose.(More)
The study deals with the evaluation of antimycobacterial activity of betulinol, a dry birch bark extract (BBE), on a model of infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT). It has established the inhibitory action of betulinol on the in vitro and in vivo growth of MBT and its positive effect on reparative processes in the lung, liver, and spleen of(More)