Olga Simmons

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The initial heart is composed of a myocardial tube lined by endocardial cells. The TGFβ superfamily is known to play an important role, as BMPs from the myocardium signal to the overlying endocardium to create an environment for EMT. Subsequently, BMP and TGFβ signaling pathways synergize to form primitive valves and regulate myocardial growth. In this(More)
Although Patch mutants show severe abnormalities in many neural crest-derived structures including the face and the heart, there is a paucity of information characterizing the mechanisms underlying these congenital defects. Via manipulating the genetic background to circumvent early embryonic lethality, our results revealed that Patch phenotypes are most(More)
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