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Maintenance of genomic methylation patterns is mediated primarily by DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1). We have solved structures of mouse and human DNMT1 composed of CXXC, tandem bromo-adjacent homology (BAH1/2), and methyltransferase domains bound to DNA-containing unmethylated CpG sites. The CXXC specifically binds to unmethylated CpG dinucleotide and(More)
7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (oxoG), the predominant lesion formed following oxidative damage of DNA by reactive oxygen species, is processed differently by replicative and bypass polymerases. Our kinetic primer extension studies demonstrate that the bypass polymerase Dpo4 preferentially inserts C opposite oxoG, and also preferentially extends from the oxoG*C(More)
The aromatic amine carcinogen 2-aminofluorene (AF) forms covalent adducts with DNA, predominantly with guanine at the C8 position. Such lesions are bypassed by Y-family polymerases such as Dpo4 via error-free and error-prone mechanisms. We show that Dpo4 catalyzes elongation from a correct 3'-terminal cytosine opposite [AF]G in a nonrepetitive template(More)
Error-free lesion bypass and error-prone lesion bypass are important cellular responses to DNA damage during replication, both of which require a DNA polymerase (Pol). To identify lesion bypass DNA polymerases, we have purified human Polkappa encoded by the DINB1 gene and examined its response to damaged DNA templates. Here, we show that human Polkappa is a(More)
The effectiveness of in vitro primer elongation reactions catalyzed by human bypass DNA polymerases kappa (hDinB1), pol eta (hRad30A), pol iota (hRad30B), and yeast pol zeta (Rev3 and Rev7) in site-specifically modified template oligonucleotide strands were studied in vitro. The templates contained single bulky lesions derived from the trans-addition of the(More)
REV1 functions in the DNA polymerase zeta mutagenesis pathway. To help understand the role of REV1 in lesion bypass, we have examined activities of purified human REV1 opposite various template bases and several different DNA lesions. Lacking a 3'-->5' proofreading exonuclease activity, purified human REV1 exhibited a DNA polymerase activity on a repeating(More)
PrimPol is a novel human enzyme that contains both DNA primase and DNA polymerase activities. We present the first structure of human PrimPol in ternary complex with a DNA template-primer and an incoming deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP). The ability of PrimPol to function as a DNA primase stems from a simple but remarkable feature-almost complete lack of(More)
DNA lesion bypass is an important cellular response to genomic damage during replication. Human DNA polymerase eta (Pol(eta)), encoded by the Xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) gene, is known for its activity of error-free translesion synthesis opposite a TT cis-syn cyclobutane dimer. Using purified human Pol(eta), we have examined bypass activities of(More)
In cells, the major benzo[a]pyrene DNA adduct is the highly mutagenic (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N(2)-dG. In eukaryotes, little is known about lesion bypass of this DNA adduct during replication. Here, we show that purified human Polkappa can effectively bypass a template (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N(2)-dG adduct in an error-free manner. Kinetic parameters indicate that(More)
DNA polymerase mu (Polmu) is a newly discovered member of the polymerase X family with unknown cellular function. The understanding of Polmu function should be facilitated by an understanding of its biochemical activities. By using purified human Polmu for biochemical analyses, we discovered the lesion bypass activities of this polymerase in response to(More)