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Crowding (mutual scrambling of nearby peripheral stimuli) has several known asymmetries. We explored these and other asymmetries systematically across the visual field. Crowding strength for 16 target (Gabor) positions in the visual field (8 directions × 2 eccentricities) were determined by positioning a plaid mask made of two transparently overlaid Gabors(More)
It has long been known that an outward mask is much more disruptive than an inward mask in crowding (H. Bouma, 1973). We show that the locus of attention strongly affects this inward-outward anisotropy, removing it in some conditions and reversing it in others. In a 2AFC paradigm, subjects identified whether a high-contrast Gabor target of a given(More)
This study extended previous research on equivalence relations established with outcome-specific reinforcers to include the merger of separately established stimulus classes. Participants were four adults. Conditional discriminations AC and BC were trained first. Correct selections of C1 (C2, or C3) in the presence of A1 or B1 (A2 or B2, or A3 or B3) were(More)
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