Olga L. Kosoy

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Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda from a sentinel monkey in 1947. Mosquito and sentinel animal surveillance studies have demonstrated that ZIKV is endemic to Africa and Southeast Asia, yet reported human cases are rare, with <10 cases reported in the literature. In June 2007, an epidemic of fever and rash associated(More)
BACKGROUND In 2007, physicians on Yap Island reported an outbreak of illness characterized by rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgia. Although serum from some patients had IgM antibody against dengue virus, the illness seemed clinically distinct from previously detected dengue. Subsequent testing with the use of consensus primers detected Zika virus RNA in(More)
Powassan virus (POWV) disease is a rare human disease caused by a tick-borne encephalitis group flavivirus maintained in a transmission cycle between Ixodes cookei and other ixodid ticks and small and medium-sized mammals. During 1958-1998, only 27 POWV disease cases (mostly Powassan encephalitis) were reported from eastern Canada and the northeastern(More)
West Nile (WN) virus was introduced into the United States in 1999, when the first human cases of WN fever and encephalitis appeared in New York City. From there, the virus has spread throughout North America, in some areas cocirculating with the related flavivirus St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus. Public health laboratories currently use an(More)
St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) and West Nile (WN) flaviviruses are genetically closely related and cocirculate in the United States. Virus neutralization tests provide the most specific means for serodiagnosis of infections with these viruses. However, use of wild-type SLE and WN viral strains for laboratory testing is constrained by the biocontainment(More)
of age, and the attack rate decreased as patients’ ages increased (6). Reactive vaccination campaigns in some communes of Madarounfa district that had reached the epidemic threshold were launched by the Ministry of Public Health with a remaining 2009 stockpile (16,527 doses, 35.7% coverage) of the quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine (A/C/Y/W135) from(More)
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a highly virulent, mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes severe and often fatal neurological disease in humans and horses in eastern North American, the Caribbean, and Mexico and throughout Central and South America. EEEV infection is diagnosed serologically by anti-EEEV-specific IgM detection, with confirmation(More)
Chikungunya virus is an emerging threat to the United States because humans are amplifying hosts and competent mosquito vectors are present in many regions of the country. We identified laboratory-confirmed chikungunya virus infections with diagnostic testing performed in the United States from 2010 through 2013. We described the epidemiology of these cases(More)
A diagnostic algorithm was developed to differentiate between human infections of West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) using positive-to-negative (P/N) ratios derived from the immunoglobulin M capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). To validate this algorithm, we tested 1,418 serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)(More)