Olga Kostopoulou

Learn More
Physicians often encounter diagnostic problems with ambiguous and conflicting features. What are they likely to do in such situations? We presented a diagnostic scenario to 84 family physicians and traced their information gathering, diagnoses and management. The scenario contained an ambiguous feature, while the other features supported either a cardiac or(More)
BACKGROUND Designers of computerised diagnostic support systems (CDSSs) expect physicians to notice when they need advice and enter into the CDSS all information that they have gathered about the patient. The poor use of CDSSs and the tendency not to follow advice once a leading diagnosis emerges would question this expectation. AIM To determine whether(More)
UNLABELLED The Learning Health System (LHS) describes linking routine healthcare systems directly with both research translation and knowledge translation as an extension of the evidence-based medicine paradigm, taking advantage of the ubiquitous use of electronic health record (EHR) systems. TRANSFoRm is an EU FP7 project that seeks to develop an(More)
Information distortion is a cognitive bias in sequential diagnostic reasoning. Assumptions about the diagnostic validity of later evidence are distorted in favor of the leading hypothesis. Therefore the bias contributes to a primacy effect. Current parallel constraint satisfaction models account for order effects and coherence shifts, but do not explain(More)
The unconscious thought theory argues that making complex decisions after a period of distraction can lead to better decision quality than deciding either immediately or after conscious deliberation. Two studies have tested this unconscious thought effect (UTE) in clinical diagnosis with conflicting results. The studies used different methodologies and had(More)
BACKGROUND Computerized diagnostic decision support systems (CDDSS) have the potential to support the cognitive task of diagnosis, which is one of the areas where general practitioners have greatest difficulty and which accounts for a significant proportion of adverse events recorded in the primary care setting. OBJECTIVE To determine the extent to which(More)
Participants decided whom of two patients to prioritize for surgery in three studies. The factual quantitative information about the patients (e.g., probability of surviving surgery) was given in vignette form with case descriptions on Visual Analogue Scales — VAS's. Differentiation and Consolidation theory predicts that not only the attractiveness of facts(More)
Based on research on the increasingly popular unconscious thought effect (UTE), it has been suggested that physicians might make better diagnostic decisions after a period of distraction than after an equivalent amount of time of conscious deliberation. However, published attempts to demonstrate the UTE in medical decision making have yielded inconsistent(More)
Accurate perception of medical probabilities communicated to patients is a cornerstone of informed decision making. People, however, are prone to biases in probability perception. Recently, Pighin and others extended the list of such biases with evidence that "1-in-X" ratios (e.g., "1 in 12") led to greater perceived probability and worry about health(More)
BACKGROUND First impressions are thought to exert a disproportionate influence on subsequent judgments; however, their role in medical diagnosis has not been systematically studied. We aimed to elicit and measure the association between first impressions and subsequent diagnoses in common presentations with subtle indications of cancer. METHODS Ninety UK(More)