Olga I. Raikova

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In order to broaden the information about the organisation of the nervous system in taxon Acoela, an immunocytochemical study of an undetermined Acoela from Cape Kartesh, Faerlea glomerata, Avagina incola and Paraphanostoma crassum has been performed. Antibodies to 5-HT and the native flatworm neuropeptide GYIRFamide were used. As in earlier studies, the(More)
Acoela are marine microscopic worms currently thought to be the sister taxon of all other bilaterians. Acoels have long been used as models in evolutionary scenarios, and generalized conclusions about acoel and bilaterian ancestral features are frequently drawn from studies of single acoel species. There is no extensive phylogenetic study of Acoela and the(More)
The taxa Nemertodermatida and Acoela have traditionally been considered closely related and classified as sister groups within the Acoelomorpha Ehlers 1984 (Platyhelminthes). Recent molecular investigations have questioned their respective position. In this study, the 5-HT and FMRFamide immunoreactivity (IR) in the nervous system of two nemertodermatids,(More)
The pattern of muscles in the actively swimming predatory rotifer Asplanchnopus multiceps is revealed by staining with tetramethyl-rhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC)-labelled phalloidin and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). The major components of the musculature are: prominent semicircular muscles of the corona; paired lateral, dorsal and ventral(More)
Copulatory organs of eight species of the monophyletic taxon Childia were investigated in detail, using phalloidin fluorescence method and confocal microscopy. Childia species were shown to have one, two or several tubular stylets, conical to cylindrical in shape, composed of few to numerous needles. The musculature varied greatly, from the absence of(More)
The use of well-characterized antibodies raised to neuronal signal substances and their application through immunocytochemistry and confocal scanning laser microscopy has revolutionized studies of the flatworm nervous system (NS). Data about flatworm neuropeptides and the spatial relationship between neuropeptides and other neuronal signal substances and(More)
In order to solve the problem of whether the Acoela have a brain of a common flatworm type, an immunocytochemical study was performed of the pattern of FMRF-amide in the nervous system of four species of Acoela, Anaperus biaculeatus, Childia groenlandica, Antinoposthia beklemischevi and Mecynostomum sp. In all species a FMRF-amide positive bilobed(More)
The Nemertodermatida are a small group of microscopic marine worms. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that they are likely to be the earliest extant bilaterian animals. What was the nervous system (NS) of a bilaterian ancestor like? In order to answer that question, the NS of Nemertoderma westbladi was investigated by means of indirect(More)
Nemertodermatida is a small taxon of marine worm-like animals; its position in the tree of life is highly contested. The musculature of Nemertoderma westbladi and Meara stichopi is studied here in detail using fluorescent phalloidin and confocal microscopy. In both species, the musculature is composed of an outer layer of circular and an inner layer of(More)
In order to broaden the information about the organisation of the nervous system in the Plathelminthes, an immunocytochemical (ICC) study of the free-living flatworm Castrella truncata (Dalyellioida) has been performed. This is the first time a representative of the taxon Rhabdocoela has been studied with the ICC technique. Antibodies to 5-HT and FMRF-amide(More)