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UNLABELLED BACKGROUND Human and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) by Leishmania infantum is endemic in Italy, with a high percentage of infected asymptomatic animals. However, the immune response mechanisms underlying the clinical presentation of CanL have not been fully investigated. Among leishmanicidal molecules produced by activated macrophages, nitric(More)
Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or endotoxins are potent triggers of the cytokine (CK) cascade. These CKs are immune mediators which produce many biological effects and could play a detrimental rather than beneficial role in the host. In this review emphasis will be placed on the participation of two CKs, tumor necrosis factor [TNF-alpha and interleukin(More)
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