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BACKGROUND Apoptotic cell death plays an essential part in embryogenesis, development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis in metazoan animals. The culmination of apoptosis in vivo is the phagocytosis of cellular corpses. One morphological characteristic of cells undergoing apoptosis is loss of plasma membrane phospholipid asymmetry and exposure of(More)
Neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) analyze interaural time differences (ITDs) by comparing the arrival times of the two excitatory inputs from each ear using a coincidence detection mechanism. They also receive a prominent inhibitory, glycinergic projection from the ipsilateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), which contributes to the(More)
Rhodamine 123 staining, light and electron microscopy were used to evaluate the ultrastructural and functional state of cultured cerebellar granule cells after short treatment with the solution where NaCl was substituted by sucrose (sucrose balance salt medium, SBSM). Cell exposure to SBSM for 20 min resulted in the fact that mitochondria in the neurons(More)
Across all sensory modalities, the effect of context-dependent neural adaptation can be observed at every level, from receptors to perception. Nonetheless, it has long been assumed that the processing of interaural time differences, which is the primary cue for sound localization, is nonadaptive, as its outputs are mapped directly onto a hard-wired(More)
Action potential timing is fundamental to information processing; however, its determinants are not fully understood. Here we report unexpected structural specializations in the Ranvier nodes and internodes of auditory brainstem axons involved in sound localization. Myelination properties deviated significantly from the traditionally assumed structure.(More)
Neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) encode interaural time differences (ITDs) with sustained firing rates of >100 Hz. They are able to generate such high firing rates for several hundred milliseconds despite their extremely low-input resistances of only few megaohms and high synaptic conductances in vivo. The biophysical mechanisms by which these(More)
SYNOPSIS. Programmed cell death occurs in most, if not all life forms. It is used to sculpt tissue during embryogenesis, to remove damaged cells, to protect against pathogen infection and to regulate cell numbers and tissue homeostasis. In animals cell death often occurs by a morphologically and biochemically conserved process called apoptosis. A novel(More)
The anisotropy of turbulence in the fast solar wind, between the ion and electron gyroscales, is directly observed using a multispacecraft analysis technique. Second order structure functions are calculated at different angles to the local magnetic field, for magnetic fluctuations both perpendicular and parallel to the mean field. In both components, the(More)
The mammalian cochlea is under direct control of two groups of cholinergic auditory brainstem neurons, the medial and the lateral olivocochlear neurons. The former modulate the electromechanical amplification in outer hair cells and the latter the transduction of inner hair cells to auditory nerve fibers. The lateral olivocochlear neurons express not only(More)