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Many of the major pathways that govern early development in higher animals have been identified in cnidarians, including the Wnt, TGFbeta and tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. We show here that Notch signaling is also conserved in these early metazoans. We describe the Hydra Notch receptor (HvNotch) and provide evidence for the conservation of the Notch(More)
Programmed cell death occurs in most, if not all life forms. It is used to sculpt tissue during embryogenesis, to remove damaged cells, to protect against pathogen infection and to regulate cell numbers and tissue homeostasis. In animals cell death often occurs by a morphologically and biochemically conserved process called apoptosis. A novel group of(More)
BACKGROUND Apoptotic cell death plays an essential part in embryogenesis, development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis in metazoan animals. The culmination of apoptosis in vivo is the phagocytosis of cellular corpses. One morphological characteristic of cells undergoing apoptosis is loss of plasma membrane phospholipid asymmetry and exposure of(More)
In contrast to the chromosomal genome organization common to most eukaryotes, DNA in the macronucleus of spirotrichous ciliates like Stylonychia lemnae is organized into small gene-sized nanochromosomes. We intended to elucidate whether a spatial organization of nucleoli similar to other eukaryotes can be found in absence of typical chromosomes. Whereas(More)
Hydra is one of the simplest metazoans and thus an important model organism for studies on the evolution of developmental mechanisms in multi-cellular animals. In Hydra apoptosis is involved in the regulation of cell numbers in response to feeding, in regeneration and in the removal of non-self cells. It also participates in the maintenance of cellular(More)
Spatial and temporal replication patterns are used to describe higher-order chromatin organisation from nuclei of early metazoan to mammalian cells. Here we demonstrate evolutionary conserved similarities and differences in replication patterns of micronuclei and macronuclei in the spirotrichous ciliate Stylonychia lemnae. Since this organism possesses two(More)
Neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) analyze interaural time differences (ITDs) by comparing the arrival times of the two excitatory inputs from each ear using a coincidence detection mechanism. They also receive a prominent inhibitory, glycinergic projection from the ipsilateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), which contributes to the(More)
In the simple metazoan Hydra a clear link between food supply and cell survival has been established. Whilst in plants 14-3-3 proteins are found to be involved in signalling cascades that regulate metabolism, in animals they have been shown to participate in cell survival pathways. In order to explore the possibility that 14-3-3 proteins in Hydra could be(More)
We have screened a Hydra cDNA library for sequences encoding N-terminal signal peptides using the yeast invertase secretion vector pSUC [Jacobs et al., 1997. A genetic selection for isolating cDNAs encoding secreted proteins. Gene 198, 289-296]. We isolated and sequenced 907 positive clones; 88% encoded signal peptides; 12% lacked signal peptides. By(More)
To investigate the evolutionary conservation of higher order nuclear architecture previously described for mammalian cells we have analyzed the nuclear architecture of the simple polyp Hydra. These diploblastic organisms have large nuclei (8-10 microm) containing about 3x10(9) bp of DNA organized in 15 chromosome pairs. They belong to the earliest metazoan(More)