Olga A Varlamova

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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cellular fate by controlling the stability or translation of mRNA transcripts. Although the spatial and temporal patterning of miRNA expression is tightly controlled, little is known about signals that induce their expression nor mechanisms of their transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, few miRNA targets have been validated(More)
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, noncoding RNAs that regulate the stability or translation of mRNA transcripts. Although recent work has implicated miRNAs in development and in disease, the expression and function of miRNAs in the adult mammalian nervous system have not been extensively characterized. Here, we examine the role of two brain-specific(More)
Estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) catalyzes the transfer of the sulfuryl group from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to 17beta-estradiol (E2). The sulfation of E2 prevents it from binding to, and thereby activating, the estrogen receptor. The regulation of EST appears to be causally linked to tumorigenesis in the breast and endometrium. In this(More)
Activity-regulated gene expression is believed to play a key role in the development and refinement of neuronal circuitry. Nevertheless, the transcriptional networks that regulate synapse growth and plasticity remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we show that microRNA 132 (miR132) is an activity-dependent rapid response gene regulated by the cAMP response(More)
Activity-regulated gene expression is believed to play a key role in the development and refinement of neuronal circuitry. Nevertheless, the transcriptional networks that regulate synaptic plasticity remain largely uncharacterized. We show here that the CREB- and activity-regulated microRNA, miR132, is induced during periods of active synaptogenesis.(More)
Although regulation of histone methylation is believed to contribute to embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal, the mechanisms remain obscure. We show here that the histone H3 trimethyl lysine 4 (H3K4me3) demethylase, KDM5B, is a downstream Nanog target and critical for ESC self-renewal. Although KDM5B is believed to function as a promoter-bound repressor,(More)
Phosphorylation on Ser 19 of the myosin II regulatory light chain by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) regulates actomyosin contractility in smooth muscle and vertebrate nonmuscle cells. The smooth/nonmuscle MLCK gene locus produces two kinases, a high molecular weight isoform (long MLCK) and a low molecular weight isoform (short MLCK), that are(More)
ATP sulfurylase, isolated from Escherichia coli K-12, is a GTPase-target complex that catalyzes and links the energetics of GTP hydrolysis to the synthesis of activated sulfate (APS). When the GTP concentration is saturating and held fixed with a regenerating system, the APS reaction reaches a steady state in which its mass ratio is shifted (5.4 x(More)
The formation of myosin-II filaments is fundamental to contractile and motile processes in nonmuscle cells, and elucidating the mechanisms controlling filament assembly is essential for understanding how myosin-II rapidly responds to changing conditions within the cell. Several proteins including KRP and a novel 38 kDa protein (1, 2) have been shown to(More)
Microinjection of constitutively active Cdc42 (V12Cdc42) disrupts the actomyosin cytoskeleton during cellularization (Crawford et al., Dev. Biol., 204, 151-164 (1998)). The p21-activated kinase (PAK) family of Ser/Thr kinases are effectors of GTP-bound forms of the small GTPases, Cdc42 and Rac. Drosophila PAK, which colocalizes with actin and myosin-II(More)