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The pathogenic mechanisms underlying acute pancreatitis are not clear. Two key pathologic acinar cell responses of this disease are vacuole accumulation and trypsinogen activation. We show here that both result from defective autophagy, by comparing the autophagic responses in rodent models of acute pancreatitis to physiologic autophagy triggered by(More)
Mechanisms of cell death in pancreatitis remain unknown. Parenchymal necrosis is a major complication of pancreatitis; also, the severity of experimental pancreatitis correlates directly with necrosis and inversely with apoptosis. Thus, shifting death responses from necrosis to apoptosis may have a therapeutic value. To determine cell death pathways in(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) causes loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and, ultimately, adenosine triphosphate depletion and necrosis. Cells deficient in cyclophilin D (CypD), a component of the MPTP, are resistant to MPTP opening, loss of ΔΨm, and necrosis. Alcohol abuse is a major risk(More)
Pancreatitis is a severe and frequently lethal disorder, a major cause of which is alcohol abuse. Parenchymal cell death is a major complication of pancreatitis. In experimental models of (non-alcoholic) acute pancreatitis, acinar cells have been shown to die through both necrosis and apoptosis, the two principal pathways of cell death. The severity of(More)
Bile acids are known to induce Ca(2+) signals in pancreatic acinar cells. We have recently shown that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) regulates changes in free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) elicited by CCK by inhibiting sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA). The present study sought to determine whether PI3K regulates bile(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is abundant in the acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas. To test the role of ER homeostasis in acute pancreatitis, we manipulated GRP78 levels, a major ER chaperone, in mice. Grp78(+/+) and (+/-) littermates were fed either a regular diet (RD) or a high-fat diet. Acinar cells were examined for ER structure by electron(More)
Mammalian sodium/bile acid cotransporters (SBATs) are glycoproteins with an exoplasmic N-terminus, an odd number of transmembrane regions, and a cytoplasmic C-terminus. Various algorithms predict eight or nine membrane-embedded regions derived from nine hydrophobic stretches of the protein (H1-H9). Three methods were used to define which of these were(More)
BACKGROUND Mechanisms of acinar cell death in pancreatitis are poorly understood. Cytochrome c release is a central event in apoptosis in pancreatitis. Here, we assessed the regulation of pancreatic cytochrome c release by Ca(2+), mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi m), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), the signals involved in acute pancreatitis.(More)
Serum amyloid A (SAA), secreted group IIA phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are acute-phase proteins whose serum concentrations increase not only during inflammatory disorders, but also in the course of malignant diseases. In this study we analyzed serum levels of these inflammatory markers along with prostate-specific antigens(More)
The ileal apical and liver basolateral bile acid transporters catalyze the Na+-dependent uptake of these amphipathic molecules in the intestine and liver. They contain nine predicted helical hydrophobic sequences (H1-H9) between the exoplasmic N-glycosylated N terminus and the cytoplasmic C terminus. Previous in vitro translation and in vivo alanine(More)