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While scaffold proteins are thought to be key components of signaling pathways, their exact function is unknown. By preassembling multiple components of signaling cascades, scaffolds are predicted to influence the efficiency and/or specificity of signaling events. Here we analyze a potential scaffold of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways are implicated in the regulation of cell differentiation, although their precise roles in many differentiation programs remain elusive. The Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase cascade has been proposed to both promote and inhibit adipogenesis. Here, we titrate expression of the molecular(More)
Kinase suppressors of Ras 1 and 2 (KSR1 and KSR2) function as molecular scaffolds to potently regulate the MAP kinases ERK1/2 and affect multiple cell fates. Here we show that KSR2 interacts with and modulates the activity of AMPK. KSR2 regulates AMPK-dependent glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and glycolysis in a(More)
Kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) is a loss-of-function allele that suppresses the rough eye phenotype of activated Ras in Drosophila and the multivulval phenotype of activated Ras in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetic and biochemical studies suggest that KSR is a positive regulator of Ras signaling that functions between Ras and Raf or in a pathway parallel to(More)
The kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) is a loss-of-function allele that suppresses the rough eye phenotype of activated Ras in Drosophila and the multivulval phenotype of activated Ras in Caenorhabditis elegans. The physiological role of mammalian KSR is not known. We examined the mechanisms regulating the phosphorylation of this putative kinase in mammalian(More)
A chimeric growth factor receptor (CSF1R/IR) was constructed by splicing cDNA sequences encoding the extracellular ligand binding domain of the human colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) receptor to sequences encoding the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the human insulin receptor. The addition of CSF-1 to cells transfected with the CSF1R/IR chimera(More)
The intracellular mechanisms used by insulin and insulin-like growth factors to block programmed cell death are unknown. To identify receptor structures and signaling pathways essential for anti-apoptotic effects on cells, we have created a chimeric receptor (colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor/insulin receptor chimera (CSF1R/IR)) connecting the(More)
Viral protein R (Vpr) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a small accessory protein that regulates nuclear import of the viral preintegration complex and facilitates infection of nondividing cells, such as macrophages. Studies demonstrated that a fraction of Vpr molecules is phosphorylated in the virions and in HIV-1-infected cells, but the(More)
Kinase suppressor of ras 1 (KSR1) is a molecular scaffold of the Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade that enhances oncogenic Ras signaling. Here we show KSR1-dependent, but ERK-independent, regulation of metabolic capacity is mediated through the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α)(More)
Mutations in the cytoplasmic domain of the insulin receptor that block the ability of the receptor to stimulate glucose uptake do not block the receptor's ability to inhibit apoptosis (Boehm, J. E., Chaika, O. V., and Lewis, R. E. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 7169-7176). To characterize this survival pathway we used a chimeric receptor (CSF1R/IR) consisting(More)