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Usher syndrome type IIA (USH2A), characterized by progressive photoreceptor degeneration and congenital moderate hearing loss, is the most common subtype of Usher syndrome. In this article, we show that the USH2A protein, also known as usherin, is an exceptionally large ( approximately 600-kDa) matrix protein expressed specifically in retinal photoreceptors(More)
The ciliary rootlet, first recognized over a century ago, is a prominent structure originating from the basal body at the proximal end of a cilium. Despite being the largest cytoskeleton, its structural composition has remained unknown. Here, we report a novel 220-kD protein, designated rootletin, found in the rootlets of ciliated cells. Recombinant(More)
A homogenous protein of 120,000 mol. wt isolated from black widow spider (Lactrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus) venom and referred to as alpha-latroinsectotoxin was highly potent (4 nM) in the induction of an increase of the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials in blowfly (Calliphora vicina) larvae neuromuscular preparations. In the(More)
PURPOSE Gene therapy for retinal degeneration requires well-defined promoters that drive expression in rod and cone photoreceptors. This study was undertaken to develop short, active derivatives of the human rhodopsin kinase (RK) gene promoter for targeting transgene expression in rods and cones. RK, also known as G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 (GRK1),(More)
Development of axons and dendrites constitutes a critical event in neuronal maturation and seems to require signaling through the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Mutations in components of the PCP pathway lead to a spectrum of neurological phenotypes and disorders. For example, a missense mutation in Prickle 1 (Pk1) is associated with progressive(More)
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein-like 1 (AIPL1) is required for the biosynthesis of photoreceptor phosphodiesterase (PDE). Gene defects in AIPL1 cause a heterogeneous set of conditions ranging from Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA), the severest form of early-onset retinal degeneration, to milder forms such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and(More)
Tubby is the founding member of the tubby-like family of proteins. The naturally occurring tubby mutation in mice causes retinitis pigmentosa, hearing loss and obesity. Tubby has been proposed to function as an accessory factor in ciliary trafficking. We directly examined a role for tubby in ciliary trafficking in vivo. We used immunofluoresence labeling to(More)
PURPOSE Age-related degradation of the elastic lamina in Bruch's membrane may have a permissive effect on the growth of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). This study investigated the influence of defective elastic fiber maintenance in the development of laser-induced CNV. METHODS A mouse lacking lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL)-1, an enzyme essential for(More)
The construction and application of biological network models is an approach that offers a holistic way to understand biological processes involved in disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive inflammatory disease of the airways for which therapeutic options currently are limited after diagnosis, even in its earliest stage. COPD(More)
Development of axons and dendrites constitutes a critical event in neuronal maturation and seems to require signaling through the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Mutations in components of the PCP pathway lead to a spectrum of neurological phenotypes and disorders. For example, a missense mutation in Prickle 1 (Pk1) is associated with progressive(More)