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Nerve terminals are unique among cellular secretory systems in that they can sustain vesicular release at a high rate. Although little is known about the mechanisms that account for the distinctive features of neurotransmitter release, it can be assumed that neuron-specific proteins are involved. One such protein family, the synapsins, are believed to(More)
Neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) often store more than one neurotransmitter, but as yet the functional significance of this type of coexistence is poorly understood. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modulates calcium-dependent K+ channels (KCa) responsible for the postspike afterhyperpolarization in different regions of the CNS. In lamprey, 5-HT(More)
The proline-rich COOH-terminal region of dynamin binds various Src homology 3 (SH3) domain-containing proteins, but the physiological role of these interactions is unknown. In living nerve terminals, the function of the interaction with SH3 domains was examined. Amphiphysin contains an SH3 domain and is a major dynamin binding partner at the synapse.(More)
Spinal cord injury often results in permanent functional impairment. Neural stem cells present in the adult spinal cord can be expanded in vitro and improve recovery when transplanted to the injured spinal cord, demonstrating the presence of cells that can promote regeneration but that normally fail to do so efficiently. Using genetic fate mapping, we show(More)
Neurons are continuously generated from stem cells in discrete regions in the adult mammalian brain. We found that ependymal cells lining the lateral ventricles were quiescent and did not contribute to adult neurogenesis under normal conditions in mice but instead gave rise to neuroblasts and astrocytes in response to stroke. Ependymal cell quiescence was(More)
There is limited regeneration of lost tissue after central nervous system injury, and the lesion is sealed with a scar. The role of the scar, which often is referred to as the glial scar because of its abundance of astrocytes, is complex and has been discussed for more than a century. Here we show that a specific pericyte subtype gives rise to scar-forming(More)
Actin is an abundant component of nerve terminals that has been implicated at multiple steps of the synaptic vesicle cycle, including reversible anchoring, exocytosis, and recycling of synaptic vesicles. In the present study we used the lamprey reticulospinal synapse to examine the role of actin at the site of synaptic vesicle recycling, the endocytic zone.(More)
Mitochondrial morphology is controlled by two opposing processes: fusion and fission. Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1) and hFis1 are two key players of mitochondrial fission, but how Drp1 is recruited to mitochondria and how Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission is regulated in mammals is poorly understood. Here, we identify the vertebrate-specific protein(More)
Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate clone 15 (Eps15) is a protein implicated in endocytosis, endosomal protein sorting, and cytoskeletal organization. Its role is, however, still unclear, because of reasons including limitations of dominant-negative experiments and apparent redundancy with other endocytic proteins. We generated Drosophila(More)
It has been hypothesized that in the mature nerve terminal, interactions between synapsin and actin regulate the clustering of synaptic vesicles and the availability of vesicles for release during synaptic activity. Here, we have used immunogold electron microscopy to examine the subcellular localization of actin and synapsin in the giant synapse in lamprey(More)