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The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is the predominant carrier of alpha2,8 polysialic acid (PSA) in the mammalian brain. Abnormalities in PSA and NCAM expression are associated with schizophrenia in humans and cause deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and contextual fear conditioning in mice. Here, we show that PSA inhibits opening of(More)
Polysialic acid (PSA) regulates functions of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) during development and in neuroplasticity in the adult; the underlying mechanisms at different phases of learning and memory consolidation are, however, unknown. To investigate the contributions of PSA versus the extracellular domain of the NCAM glycoprotein backbone to(More)
Although the extracellular matrix plays an important role in regulating use-dependent synaptic plasticity, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we examined the synaptic function of hyaluronic acid (HA), a major component of the extracellular matrix. Enzymatic removal of HA with hyaluronidase reduced nifedipine-sensitive whole-cell(More)
The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM and its associated polysialic acid (PSA) play important roles in synaptic plasticity in the CA1 and/or CA3 regions of the hippocampus in vitro. Here, we address the question of whether NCAM and PSA are involved in regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity also in vivo at synapses formed by entorhinal cortex(More)
Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is the predominant carrier of the unusual glycan polysialic acid (PSA). Deficits in PSA and/or NCAM expression cause impairments in hippocampal long-term potentiation and depression (LTP and LTD) and are associated with schizophrenia and aging. In this study, we show that impaired LTP in adult NCAM-deficient (NCAM(-/-))(More)
Dynamic regulation of glycosylation of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) by an unusual large negatively charged polysialic acid (PSA) is the major prerequisite for correct formation of brain circuitries during development and for normal synaptic plasticity, learning and memory in the adult. Traditionally, PSA is viewed as a de-adhesive highly(More)
We develop a strategy to design and evaluate high-entropy alloys (HEAs) for structural use in the transportation and energy industries. We give HEA goal properties for low (≤150 °C), medium (≤450 °C) and high (≥1,100 ° C) use temperatures. A systematic design approach uses palettes of elements chosen to meet target properties of each HEA family and gives(More)
Neural extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules derived from neurons and glial cells accumulate in the extracellular space and regulate synaptic plasticity through modulation of perisomal GABAergic inhibition, intrinsic neuronal excitability, integrin signaling, and activities of L-type Ca(2+) channels, NMDA receptors, and Rho-associated kinase. Genetic or(More)
Microstructure and phase composition of a CrMo 0.5 NbTa 0.5 TiZr high entropy alloy were studied in the as-solidified and heat treated conditions. In the as-solidified condition, the alloy consisted of two disordered BCC phases and an ordered cubic Laves phase. The BCC1 phase solidified in the form of dendrites enriched with Mo, Ta and Nb, and its volume(More)
The postjunctional potentials and chronoinotropic reactions of the heart evoked by activation of multimodal neurons and/or left pallial nerve were investigated in three species of land pulmonates: Achatina fulica Ferrussac, Helix lucorum L., Arianta arbustorum L. Both spikes of giant homologous neurons (d-VLN, d-RPLN by A. fulica, command neurons of(More)