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Abnormal central dopamine (DA) neurotransmission has been implicated in the impulsivity, inattention, and hyperactivity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that a pharmacological challenge with methylphenidate (MP) at a therapeutic dose increases extracellular DA concentrations in proportion to the severity of these specific(More)
In a population-based study, 3021 women in a central Copenhagen district received a questionnaire on environmental and psychological factors during mid-gestation. Of these, 70 women were selected consecutively on the basis of moderate to severe stressful life-events (DSM-III-R categories 3 to 5), in combination with an inadequate social network. They were(More)
Twenty-nine high-risk preterm born children, from a cohort with cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements in the first 2 d of life, were examined prospectively at the age of 5.5-7 y neurologically, neuropsychologically and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They were compared to 57 control children in terms of neurology and neuropsychology. Abnormal MRI was(More)
We present a 2-year-old boy and a 6-year-old girl with mild Canavan disease (CD). Aspartoacylase activity in skin fibroblasts was deficient. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain did not show the prominent leucodystrophy previously reported in CD, but there was a hyperintense signal from the lentiform nuclei and the heads of the caudate nuclei on(More)
Perinatal anoxia/ischemia or premature birth increases the risk of developing attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Brain imaging studies of idopathic ADHD reveal elevated dopamine transporter density in striatum of patients, predicting abnormal response to a challenge with methylphenidate in this population. We hypothesized that the severity of(More)
Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), while largely thought to be a genetic disorder, has environmental factors that appear to contribute significantly to the aetiopathogenesis of the disorder. One such factor is pretern birth with vulnerable cerebrovascular homeostasis. We hypothesised that cerebral ischaemia at birth could contribute to(More)
A knowledge of neonatal cerebrovascular physiology is essential to the understanding of diseases that frequently affect the subsequent development of the newborn brain. Recent observations indicate that the cerebral vessels of the healthy newborn infant, even the very preterm, respond to physiological stimuli in the same manner as in the mature organism.(More)
Cerebral blood flow was measured by intravenous 133Xe clearance one to four times during the first 48 h of life in 20 infants, born after 27 to 33 weeks of gestation, who were under mechanical ventilation and being monitored by amplitude integrated EEG, resulting in 36 sets of simultaneous CBF and EEG measurements. Mean CBF infinity, a measure of global(More)
The local cerebral vascular response to hyperventilation was investigated in five distressed, intubated infants by means of a T2 sensitive gradient-echo MRI technique at 1.5 T. In one preterm infant, the MR signal change during hyperventilation was sparse. In four term infants, the mean MR signal of the brain slice investigated decreased by 1.2-2.6% per kPa(More)