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Membrane water transport is critically involved in brain volume homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of brain edema. The cDNA encoding aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel protein was recently isolated from rat brain. We used immunocytochemistry and high-resolution immunogold electron microscopy to identify the cells and membrane domains that mediate water flux(More)
Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in brain, is almost exclusively intracellular due to the action of the glutamate transporters in the plasma membranes. To study the localization and properties of these proteins, we have raised antibodies specifically recognizing parts of the sequences of two cloned rat glutamate transporters, GLT-1 (Pines et(More)
Postembedding immunogold labeling was used to determine the relationship between AMPA and NMDA receptor density and size of Schaffer collateral-commissural (SCC) synapses of the adult rat. All SCC synapses expressed NMDA receptors. AMPA and NMDA receptors were colocalized in at least 75% of SCC synapses; the ratio of AMPA to NMDA receptors was a linear(More)
The distribution and colocalization of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and glycine-like immunoreactivity in the cochlear nuclear complex of the guinea pig have been studied to produce a light microscopic atlas. The method used was based on post-embedding immunocytochemistry in pairs of 0.5-μm-thick plastic sections treated with polyclonal antibodies against(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in the neuropil of the central nervous system. It is expressed primarily in astrocytes, but also occurs in ependymocytes and endothelial cells. A striking feature of AQP4 expression is its polarized distribution in brain astrocytes and retinal Muller cells. Thus, immunogold analyses have revealed an(More)
Two vesicular glutamate transporters, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, have recently been identified, and it has been reported that they are expressed by largely nonoverlapping populations of glutamatergic neurons in the brain. We have used immunocytochemistry with antibodies against both transporters, together with markers for various populations of spinal neurons, in(More)
The glutamate transporters GLT-1 and GLAST were studied by immunogold labeling on ultrathin sections of rat brain tissue embedded in acrylic resins at low temperature after freeze substitution. Both proteins were selective markers of astrocytic plasma membranes. GLT-1 was much higher in hippocampal astrocytes than in cerebellar astrocytes. Astroglial(More)
Sensitive and high-resolution immunocytochemical procedures were used to investigate the spatial organization of AMPA receptor subunits (GluR1-4) at the synapse between the inner hair cells and the afferent dendrites in the rat organ of Corti. This is a synapse with special functional properties and with a presynaptic dense body that defines the center of(More)
Recovery from neuronal activation requires rapid clearance of potassium ions (K+) and restoration of osmotic equilibrium. The predominant water channel protein in brain, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is concentrated in the astrocyte end-feet membranes adjacent to blood vessels in neocortex and cerebellum by association with alpha-syntrophin protein. Although AQP4 has(More)
Postembedding immunogold labeling was used to examine the subcellular distribution of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 in rat retinal Müller cells and to compare this with the distribution of the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). The quantitative analysis suggested that both molecules are enriched in those plasma membrane domains that face the(More)