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Craving is considered one of the main factors responsible for relapse after smoking cessation. Cue exposure therapy (CET) consists of controlled and repeated exposure to drug-related stimuli in order to extinguish associated responses. The main objective of this study was to assess the validity of 7 virtual reality environments for producing craving in(More)
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three smoking cessation programs of varying intensity applied in a primary care setting. Participants were 89 individuals randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: brief counseling plus information pamphlet, self-help program with telephone follow-up, and intensive behavioral treatment.(More)
This study presents a case report describing the use of Virtual Stop Smoking (VSS) program. The VSS includes a multicomponent behavioural approach and a Virtual Reality graded exposure technique. The subject was a 22-year-old female who smoked 20 cigarettes per day. Six weekly 90-minute sessions were conducted once a week over a 6-week period. Measures of(More)
Virtual Reality environments that reproduce typical contexts associated with tobacco use may be useful for aiding smoking cessation. The main objective of this study was to assess the capacity of eight environments to produce the craving to smoke and determine the relation of craving to nicotine dependence and level of presence. The results show that all(More)
Previous studies have shown the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) environments that reproduce smoking-related stimuli for increasing self-reported craving and psychophysiological reactivity in smokers. However, no study to date has attempted to simulate smoking behavior itself by means of VR technology. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of(More)
BACKGROUND The goal of this study was to estimate rates of relapse to smoking in the community and to identify predictors of relapse. METHODS Data were drawn from the Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the probability of relapse at Wave 2 among(More)
Delay discounting is a measure of impulsivity describing how a reinforcer loses value as the delay to its receipt increases. Greater delay discounting is reliably observed among those with different substance use disorders (SUDs) compared to the general population. Nevertheless, the relation between delay discounting and the type and number of substances(More)
Current cigarette smokers exhibit greater delay discounting relative to ex-smokers. However, few studies have assessed longitudinal changes in delay discounting and cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in delay discounting of hypothetical monetary rewards and smoking among treatment-seeking smokers (N=80) at baseline, after 6(More)
This study analyzed the viability of financing a voucher program for cocaine addicts in Spain through public and private donations. Of the 136 companies contacted, 52 (38%) provided donations. The difference between the benefits (15,670 Euro/ $20,371) and the costs (3734 Euro/ $4854) was 11,936 Euro/ $15,517. The type of reinforcer a company can offer, the(More)
The sample is made up of 1,190 adolescents (52.8% boys; mean age = 16.81) from 37 random schools in the urban and rural areas of Asturias (northern Spain). The survey was conducted in 2008, assessing the use and patterns of use of alcohol and other drugs, age at onset of use, and psychosocial consequences. Items from the ESPAD and FRIDA questionnaires were(More)