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Located between vessels of the choriocapillaris and light-sensitive outer segments of the photoreceptors, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) closely interacts with photoreceptors in the maintenance of visual function. Increasing knowledge of the multiple functions performed by the RPE improved the understanding of many diseases leading to blindness. This(More)
Photoreceptor ribbon synapses release glutamate in response to graded changes in membrane potential evoked by vast, logarithmically scalable light intensities. Neurotransmitter release is modulated by intracellular calcium levels. Large Ca(2+)-dependent chloride currents are important regulators of synaptic transmission from photoreceptors to second-order(More)
Mutations in VMD2, encoding bestrophin (best-1), cause Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BMD), adult-onset vitelliform macular dystrophy (AVMD), and autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC). BMD is distinguished from AVMD by a diminished electrooculogram light peak (LP) in the absence of changes in the flash electroretinogram. Although the LP(More)
In close interaction with photoreceptors, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an essential role for visual function. The analysis of RPE functions, specifically ion channel functions, provides a basis to understand many degenerative diseases of the retina. The invention of the patch-clamp technique significantly improved the knowledge of ion channel(More)
This combined study of patch-clamp and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) measurement was undertaken in order to identify signaling pathways that lead to activation of Ca2+-dependent Cl- channels in cultured rat retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Intracellular application of InsP3 (10 microM) led to an increase in [Ca2+]i and activation of Cl- currents. In(More)
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) contains melanosomes similar to those found in the skin melanocytes, which undergo dramatic light-dependent movements in fish and amphibians. In mammals, those movements are more subtle and appear to be regulated by the Rab27a GTPase and the unconventional myosin, Myosin VIIa (MyoVIIa). Here we address the hypothesis(More)
The aim of this study is to characterize the subtype of tyrosine kinase-regulated L-type Ca(2+) channels in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Ca(2+) channel alpha1D-subunits were enriched by immunoprecipitation from membrane proteins isolated from rat RPE cells. Western blot analysis of the precipitates revealed coprecipitation of pp60(c-src). In(More)
Membrane currents in primary cultures of human retinal pigment epithelial cells were studied using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Two types of voltage-dependent whole-cell currents were observed. First, a time- and voltage-dependent outward current, which was activated by depolarizing the cell to potentials more positive than(More)
BACKGROUND The secretion of a variety of factors by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is essential for the structural integrity of the neuronal retina and choroid, but also plays a pivotal role in the etiology of diseases such as choroidal neovascularisation. A recent study showed that the secretory activity of the RPE is regulated by the activity of a(More)
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a potent mitogenic and secretory factor that acts on voltage operated Ca(2+) channels (VOCCs). VOCCs are categorized into L-type channels (Ca(V)1.1-1.4), P/Q-type channels (Ca(V)2.1), N-type channels (Ca(V)2.2), R-type channels (Ca(V)2.3), and T-type channels (Ca(V)3.1-3.3). Aside from regulating membrane(More)