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Dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP)-4, which catalizes the degradation of the insulinotropic incretin glucagon-like-peptide (GLP)-1, and the DPP-4 like enzyme attractin are involved in activation of T-lymphocytes and monocytes. Recently, it has been demonstrated, that the risk for certain infections is increased in type 2 diabetic patients under DPP-4 inhibitor(More)
Low-grade inflammation is important in the development of obesity related pathologies such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, and also cardiovascular disease. Visfatin/PBEF/Nampt and resistin are proinflammatory adipokines secreted from adipocytes, monocytes, and macrophages, and have been linked to atherosclerotic plaque formation, recently. The(More)
The steady state levels of the messenger RNA (mRNA) of eight GABA(A) receptor subunits, five glutamate receptor subunits and seven enzymes involved in the synthesis of glutamate and GABA were measured in eight regions of rat brain in a recently developed animal model of 'behavioural dependence' on ethanol. 'Behavioural dependence' including loss of control(More)
It is reported of botanical intoxications in 1379 ruminants (dairy cattle, beef cattle and ewes) in north-eastern Germany. The intoxications of these animals were caused by consumption of the following plants: meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale L.), cowbane (Cicuta virosa L.), sweet clover (Melilotus alba MED.), sheep's sorrel (Rumex acetosella L.),(More)
BACKGROUND PAPP-A is promising in improving risk stratification and invasive treatment decisions in stable cardiovascular patients. We evaluated the prognostic value of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) measured by a novel assay in stable cardiovascular patients. METHODS We investigated 228 stable cardiovascular outpatients. Blood was drawn(More)
The aim of the study was to evaluate whether markers of myocardial injury and ischemia are helpful in detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with stable angina. Venous blood was obtained before and after a bicycle exercise test in 47 outpatients with suspected CAD for measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), heart-type fatty acid binding(More)
BACKGROUND How to use the information from novel high sensitivity troponin assays in stable cardiac patients is unclear. Preliminary data from randomized controlled trial analyses suggest it helps with risk stratification. We investigated the determinants, diagnostic impact and prognostic value of a novel high-sensitive cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay in(More)
The steady-state levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) of five cloned dopamine (D) receptors were measured in five brain regions in rats in a recently developed animal model of 'behavioral dependence' on ethanol. One group of rats was given the choice between ethanol and water over a 9-month period and developed 'behavioral dependence' on ethanol (group a). This(More)
In Reply: We agree with Drs Kalantri and Kalantri that some clinical findings decrease the probability of hemorrhage in patients with stroke, although excluding hemorrhage with diagnostic certainty (eg, when considering anticoagulation or thrombolytic therapy) requires neuroimaging. We note that Dr S. Kalantri and others reached the same conclusion after(More)